Association Cortex: involved in putting together streams of information coming in through different senses, and integrating them into one ‘neural multimedia theater.’ (Goldberg, 33)

Brain regions that receive and integrate “inputs” from a number of different senses. (Hawkins, 114) Outside the primary sensory and motor cortices. Functions to produce “cognition.” (Kolb, 527) Most of the cerebral cortex consists of association cortex. (Patestas, 400) ‘Downstream’ areas of the cortex that have been lumped together with individual names typically afforded only by numbers (V2, V3, A2, A3,...), or by their relative locations … medial "temporal cortex,”  “posterior parietal cortex,”  “angular gyrus,” or “dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.” (Lynch, 113) Major source of input … is the “thalamus.” The primary motor and sensory cortical areas receive inputs (from regions of the thalamus), that received information from the sense organs (eyes, ears, skin, etc.) In contrast, the association cortex receives its inputs from regions of the thalamus that received their inputs from other regions of the cortex. As a result, the inputs to the association cortex have been highly processed before they (arrive). (Kolb, 527) Plural - ‘association cortices.’ Also referred to as ‘association areas.’


Multimodal Association Cortex: receive inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Integrates the information and formulates a ‘composite’ experience via higher order cognitive functions. Associated with “imagination,” judgement, “decision making,” and making long-term plans. (Patestas, 400) Among the most recent areas of the brain to develop in “evolution.” This region is particularly vulnerable to “Alzheimer’s disease.” (Goldberg, 33) Also referred to as ‘heteromodal association cortex.’

Unimodal Association Cortex: association areas located next to, near, or around the primary sensory cortices. Expands on the functions of the respective primary areas. Processes only a single "modality." (Patestas, 400)

Visual Association Cortex: located roughly between the “occipital” and “temporal lobes.” If this part of the brain is damaged you would continue to see things, but fail to recognize them as meaningful objects. (Goldberg, 24) The “primary visual cortex” projects to this area. It processes only vision. (Patestas, 400) Editor's note - includes “Brodman areas” 19, 20, 21, 23.