Recent estimates place the population of Europe 30,000 years ago at about 5,000 people. Such low numbers across such a huge area imply that social networks must have been small, and interactions among bands of individuals infrequent.
— Gary Lynch, Big Brain

Culture: the set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices shared by a large "group" of people. (McCornack, 24) "Behaviors" communicated from one generation to another. (Hockenbury, 13) Socially transmitted ways of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting within a group of people that are passed from one generation to the next. (Johnson, 143) Beliefs, understandings, practices, and ways to interpret experience. (Wood, 332) Learned, shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another. (Floyd, G2) 

Inherent in this definition is the acknowledgement that all individuals are cultural beings and have a cultural, "ethnic," and "racial" heritage. Culture has been described as the embodiment of a worldview through learned and transmitted beliefs, values, and practices, including religious and spiritual traditions. It also encompasses a way of living informed by the historical, economic, ecological, and political forces on a group. These definitions suggest that culture is fluid and dynamic, and that there are both cultural universal phenomena as well as culturally specific or relative constructs. (APA Cultural Guidelines, 9-10)

Collectivist Culture: a culture that values the needs and goals of the community or group above an individual’s. Collectivist cultures also value the importance of belonging to groups that look after you in exchange for loyalty. (McCornack, 52) Emphasizes the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual. (Hockenbury, 13) The people in Latin America, Asia, and Africa tend to have more collectivist cultures, and people from collectivist cultures will often make “self-effacing biases” - the opposite of “self-serving bias.” (Kleinman, 167)

Culture-Centered Focus: the consideration that behavior may be shaped by culture, the groups to which one belongs, and cultural stereotypes including those about stigmatized group members. (APA Cultural Guidelines, 12)

Discrimination: a set of behaviors toward members of a categorized group which are unfair in comparison to members of other groups. They can occur at several levels, from simple avoidance to active and hostile attacks on the target group or individual. (Cardwell, 78) The process that prevents members of a specific group from participating equally in society. This includes legislation, policies, and practices that treat personas differently in the judicial, educational, and social systems based on their group memberships. (Johnson, 218)

Reverse Discrimination: a situation in which a majority or an individual of a majority is denied certain rights because of preferential treatment provided to a minority or an individual of a minority. (Johnson, 279)

Display Rules: unwritten codes that govern the ways people manage and express emotions. (Floyd, G2) Social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression, especially facial expressions. (Hockenbury, 335) Cultural norms guiding appropriate ways to manage and communicate emotions. For example, customary ways to show grief range from stoic reserve to open weeping to exaggerated wailing. (McCornack, 125) Also referred to as ‘culture display rules.’

Diversity: individuals’ social identities including age, sexual orientation, physical disability, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, workplace role/position, religious and spiritual orientation, and work/family concerns. (APA Cultural Guidelines, 11-12) Degree of variation in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, first language, disability, social class, sexual orientation, economic status, and other factors within a given group. (Ravitch, 78)

Enculturation: the process of learning the characteristics and behaviors of the culture of the group to which one belongs (Johnson, 144)

Ethnicity: ethnic character; the fact or sense of belong to a particular ethnic group. (Oxford) Acceptance of the group mores and practices of one’s culture of origin and the sense of belonging. Individuals may have multiple ethnic identities that operate with different salience at different times. (APA Cultural Guidelines, 11) The national origin of our family is the primary determinant of our ethnicity. (Johnson, 172)

Ethnic: pertaining to national and cultural origins; designating origin by birth or descent rather than by present nationality. (Oxford)

Ethnic Group: group based on the national origin of one’s family or ancestors in which members share a culture and sense of common destiny. (Johnson, 168) (May) share a common history, language, traditions and experiences with other members of our ethnic group that help sustain and enhance the culture of that group within the U.S. (Johnson, 172)

Ethnocentrism: the tendency to use your own culture as the standard for judging other cultures. (Hockenbury, 12) The belief that your own culture’s ways are superior to those of all other cultures. For example, Americans, accustomed to lining up, who consider cultures that don’t use waiting lines as disorganized, are displaying ethnocentrism. (McCornack, 269) The use of one’s own ethnic group as a basis for judgments about other ethnic groups. (Cardwell, 94)

Panethnic Membership: ethnic membership based on national origin from a continent such as Africa, Asia, or North America. (Johnson, 172)

Gender: the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity or femininity. (Hockenbury, 365) A term used where it is considered appropriate to emphasize the psychological characteristics associated with males and females. (Cardwell, 112) The composite of social, psychological, and cultural attributes that characterize us as male or female. (McCornack, 25, 47)

Gender Development: roughly between the ages of 2 and 3, children can identify themselves and other children as boys or girls, although the details are still a bit fuzzy to them. (Hockenbury, 365)

Gender Identity: a person’s psychological sense of being male or female. (Hockenbury, 365) Our concept of whether we are male or female. (Cardwell, 112)

Gender Role: the behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture. (Hockenbury, 365) Those behaviors, attitudes and interests that are considered appropriate for one gender and inappropriate for the other. (Cardwell, 112) A set of expectations for appropriate behavior that a culture typically assigns to an individual based on his or her biological sex. (Floyd, G3)

Gender Schema Theory: the theory that gender-role development is influenced by the formation of ‘schemas’ (mental representations) of masculinity and femininity. For example, saying that 'trucks are for boys and dolls are for girls.' (Hockenbury, 367)

Social Learning Theory of Gender Role Development: the theory that gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of "learning," including "reinforcement,"  "punishment," and modeling. (Hockenbury, 367)

Individualistic Culture: a culture that values individual goals over group or societal goals. (McCornack, 52) Social behavior is more strongly influenced by individual preferences and attitudes than by cultural norms and value. The self is seen as independent, autonomous, and distinctive. (Hockenbury, 12) ‘Individualist cultures’ such as the UK, USA, and Australia stress individualism, whereas ‘collectivist cultures’ such as as China and Japan foster a sense of interdependence in their members. (Cardwell, 219) The people in North America and Western Europe tend to be more of an individualist culture, where individual values and goals are embraced. (Kleinman, 167)

Intercultural Competence: the ability to communicate with people from different backgrounds in ways that are ethical, appropriate, and effective. (McCornack, 267)

High-Contact Culture: culture in which people frequently touch and maintain little personal distance with another. (Floyd, G3)

High-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is often ambiguous and meaning is drawn from contextual cues, such as facial expressions and tone of voice. (Floyd, G3) A culture that presumes listeners share extensive common knowledge and therefore rely more on the context of a conversation than on the words themselves for meaning. For example, after asking to purchase two theater tickets, a Japanese person might hear, “Sorry, very difficult,” and immediately understand this as a subtle, indirect response meaning, “I am embarrassed that I can’t provide you what you wish, but the performance is sold out.” (McCornack, 186)

Low-Contact Culture: culture in which people touch infrequently and maintain relatively high levels of personal distance with one another. (Floyd, G4)

Low-Context Culture: a culture that relies on words themselves, rather than on the conversational situation, to convey meaning, resulting in direct verbal communication. In the United States, for example, we prefer directness and clarity rather than what we view as vague hints. (McCornack, 186) A culture in which verbal communication is expected to be explicit and is often interpreted literally. (Floyd, G4)

Monochronic Time (M-Time): a cultural orientation toward time that values careful scheduling and time management. In the United States, for instance, appointments are important. (McCornack, 233) A concept that treats time as a finite commodity that can be earned, saved, spent, and wasted. (Floyd, G4)

Multiculturalism: race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religious/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimensions. (APA Cultural Guidelines, 11)

Organizational Culture: a distinct set of workplace traditions, values, and practices. (McCornack, 405)

Person Perception: the process of forming impressions of others. Making sense of social situations. (Bamford, 11/30/10) Mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics of others. (Hockenbury, 438) The active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people… (Wood, 335)

Polychronic Time (P-Time): a cultural orientation toward time, viewing it loosely and fluidly and valuing human relationships over strict schedules and efficiency. In Mexico, for instance, punctuality may be sacrificed to savor a conversation. (McCornack, 236) a cultural orientation toward time, viewing it loosely and fluidly and valuing human relationships over strict schedules and efficiency. In Mexico, for instance, punctuality may be sacrificed to savor a conversation. (McCornack, 236) A concept that treats time as an infinite resource rather than a finite commodity. (Floyd, G5)

Prejudice: a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group. (Hockenbury, 450) A preconceived negative attitude toward the members of a group. (Johnson, 218) To ‘prejudge’ somebody on the basis of their membership of a particular category or group. Prejudices are specifically those prejudgments which are resistant to reversal when exposed to contradictory knowledge. Normally taken to mean a negative attitude towards members of a particular group who share the same characteristics. Prejudice is often confused with “discrimination,” which is a “behavior,” whereas prejudice is an “attitude.” A particular prejudice may or may not have a behavior associated with it. (Cardwell, 190)

Race: a group or set, especially of people, having a common feature or features. (Oxford) The category to which others assign individuals on the basis of physical characteristics, such as skin color or hair type, and the generalizations and stereotypes made as a result. People are treated or studied as though they belong to biologically defined racial groups on the basis of such characteristics. (APA Cultural Guidelines,10) Race is a social construct (race is socially created identification) that correlates with genetic variation. Racial groups are not discrete biological groups. Our genes do not differ by racial groups. (Chatroom, genetic variation)

Racism: the conscious or unconscious belief that racial differences make one group superior to others. (Johnson, 219)

Sexism: the conscious or unconscious belief that men are superior to women and subsequent behavior and actions that maintain the superior, powerful position of males. (Johnson, 221)

Sexual Orientation: a characteristic determining the sex or sexes to which someone is sexually attracted. (Floyd, G5) Enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction to others that exists along a continuum ranging from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality and that includes various forms of bisexuality. (McCornack, 26)

Stereotypes:generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individual members of those groups. (Floyd, G6) Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group. These beliefs are frequently inaccurate. Common stereotypes might include: ‘all Muslims are terrorists,’ or ‘all blondes are dumb.’ (Bamford, 11/30/10) Categorizing people into social groups and then evaluating them based on information we have in our “schemata” related to each group. (McCornack, 100) Verb - ‘stereotyping.’

World-Mindedness: the ability to practice and demonstrate acceptance and respect toward other cultures’ beliefs, values, and customs. (McCornack, 268)

Zeitgeist: the spirit of the times. The ideas, trends and values that are dominant in a culture at a particular point in history. (Cardwell, 270)