Diabetes: (disorder) in which the “pancreas” secretes insufficient “insulin” and the body in consequence fails to metabolize “glucose,” leading to loss of energy and accumulation of glucose in the blood and urine. (Oxford)

Usually a lifelong disease in which there is a high level of sugar in the blood. Insulin is a “hormone” produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. When food is digested ... glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel for the body. The role of insulin is to move glucose from the bloodstream into “muscle,” “fat,” and “liver” cells, where it can be used as fuel. People with diabetes have high “blood sugar” because their body cannot move sugar into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be stored for energy. Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans. Over 40 million Americans have ‘pre-diabetes,’ which often develops before "Type 2 Diabetes." (PubMedHealth2) Also referred to as 'diabetes mellitus.’ 

Diabetes Insipidus: a rare disorder of the “pituitary gland” caused by deficiency of “vasopressin.” (Oxford) An uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood. The amount of water conserved is controlled by 'antidiuretic hormone' (ADH), also called “vasopressin.” (PubMed Health2)

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during “pregnancy.” (NCIt) High blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. (PubMedHealth2)

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe 'hyperglycemia,' rapid progression to “ketoacidosis,” and death unless treated with insulin. (MeSH) Can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed. (PubMedHealth2)

Ketoacidosis: the metabolic condition resulted from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the shift of acid-base status of the body toward the acid side because of loss of base or retention of acids is accompanied by the accumulation of ‘ketone bodies’ in body tissues and fluids. (NCIt)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by insulin resistance or desensitization and increased blood glucose levels. This is a chronic disease that can develop gradually over the life of a patient and can be linked to both “environmental factors” and “heredity.” (NCIt) Makes up most diabetes cases. It most often occurs in adulthood. But because of high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it. Because Type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Many people with Type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. Early symptoms may include bladder, kidney, skin, or other infections that are more frequent or heal slowly, fatigue, hunger, and increased thirst (PubMed Health2)