Humanistic Therapies: based on the idea that psychological disorders are a product of self-deceit. Therapists try to help clients view themselves and their situations with greater insight, accuracy and acceptance. (Assumption) is that clients will be able to fulfill their full potential as human beings if they can achieve these goals. (Cardwell, 123)

Humanistic psychologists contend that the most important factor in personality is the individual’s conscious, subjective perception of his or her self. (Hockenbury, 553) In humanism, learning is student centered and personalized, and the educator's role is that of a facilitator. Affective and cognitive needs are key, and the goal is to develop self-actualized people in a cooperative, supportive environment. (Learning Theories, 17)


Client-Centered Therapy: (the strategy) is not to impose goals on a client and then direct them towards these goals, but rather to let the client decide their own goals, with the therapist acting to support these. (Cardwell, 182) Therapy attempts to provide a supportive environment for patients, where they can work through their problems. (Bamford, 11/1/10) Therapist is “nondirective” and “reflective.” Client directs the focus of each therapy session. (Hockenbury, 552) Editor's note - developed by Carl Rogers. Also referred to as ‘person-centered therapy.’

Empathic Understanding: taking the perspective of the patient, feeling the patient’s pain. (Bamford, 11/1/10) The ability to see the world through the eyes of the client, to understand how and why the client sees the world the way they do. (Cardwell, 183) Also referred to as ‘accurate empathic understanding.’

Genuineness: the therapist fosters trust, and attempts to create a real relationship between the patient and himself, rather than belittling the patient or attempting to be superior to the patient. (Bamford, 11/1/10) Through her own openness and honesty, the therapist provides a model for the client who must express their own feelings and accept responsibility for doing so. (Cardwell, 183)

Reflective Listening: the therapist will essentially repeat what the client has just said. Very often client centered therapists will say ‘What I hear you saying is ...’ (Bamford, 11/1/10) The therapist reflects the content and personal meaning of the feelings being experienced by the client. Creates a ‘psychological mirror,’ reflecting the clients thoughts and feelings as they exist in the client’s private inner world. Goal is to help the client explore and clarify his feelings, thoughts, and perceptions. (Hockenbury, 554)

Unconditional Positive Regard Therapy: the therapist prizes the patient, valuing the patient for who he or she is. (Bamford, 11/1/10) Expresses warmth and acceptance even if he does not approve of the client’s behavior. (Cardwell, 183)