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Example: Amygdala: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures."

  1. Click on Neuroscience at the top of the Index page.
  2. Click on the image for Brain Functions.
  3. Click on the button for Emotion.
  4. Click on the button for Emotion Structures.
  5. Find “Amygdala” on the Emotion Structures Page

ACC: also referred to as “anterior cingulate cortex.”

ACH: also referred to as “acetylcholine.”

ADH: also referred to as "antidiuretic hormone."

ADHD: also referred to as “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.”

ADP: also referred to as “adenosine diphosphate.”

AIDS: also referred to as “acquired immune deficiency syndrome.”

AMP: also referred to as “adenosine monophosphate.”

ATP: also referred to as “adenosine triphosphate.”

AVNRT: also referred to as “AV nodal re-entry tachycardia.”

Abdomen: also referred to as “abdominal cavity.”

Abdominal Cavity: see “human anatomy.”

Abilify: also referred to as "3rd generation antipsychotics."

Ability: see brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

ABO Blood Group: also referred to as "ABO gene.”

ABO Gene: see “genetics:genes.”

Abscess: see "biological disorders:infection.”

Absence Seizure: also referred to as "petit mal seizure.”

Absorption: see “biological functions.”

Absorption Spectrum: see "biological research."

Abstract: see “brain functions:cognition”

Abstraction: see “brain functions:cognition”

Academic Institutions: also referred to as “schools.”

Acalculia: also referred to as "dyscalculia."

Accessory Pathway: see "human anatomy:organs."

Accessory Pathway Tachycardia: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Accidental Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Accreditation: see "learning:education."

Acculturative Stress: see "neurological disorders:stress."

Accurate Empathic Understanding: also referred to as "empathic understanding.”

Acetyl Groups: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Acetylation: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Acetylcholine (ACH): see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Achievement Gap: see "learning:education."

Achievement Motivation: see "behavior:motivation."

Achievement Test: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Acids: see “biochemistry.”

Acoustic Nerve: also referred to as "auditory nerve."

Acquired Dyslexia: also referred to as “alexia.”

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Actin Filaments: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Acting: see "behavior."

Action-Centered Cognition: also referred to as "prescriptive cognition."

Action-Oriented Listeners: see "communication:listening."

Action Potential: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Activation: also referred to as "excitation."

Activation: see "behavior:motivation."

Activation Energy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Activator Genes: also referred to as "regulatory genes."

Activator Protein: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Active Experiencing: see "communication:speaking."

Active Learning Time: see "learning:learning drivers."

Active Site: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Active Transport: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Activity Theory of Aging: see “developmental psychology.”

Actor-Centered Cognition: also referred to as "prescriptive cognition."

Actor Experiments: see "brain functions:emotions."

Actor-Observer Effect: see "behavior:motivation:attribution."

Actor's Learning Methodology: see "learning:learning types."

Actuals: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis.”

Acute Pain: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information.”

Acute Stress Disorder: see “behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders.”

Adaptation: see "biological functions.”

Adaptive Immunity: also referred to as “immune response.”

Adaptor: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Adderall: also referred to as “methylphenidate.”

Addiction, Addictive: see "neurochemistry:narcotics."

ADDIE Model: see "learning:instructional design."

Additive Model: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

A-Delta Fibers: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Adenine: see “biochemistry."

Adenohypophysis: see “biological functions."

Adenosine: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP): see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP): also referred to as “cyclic AMP.”

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy." 

Adenylate Cyclase: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Adherens Junctions: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Adhesive Proteins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Adjective: see "communication:language:language structure."

Adolescent: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Adolescent Development: see “developmental psychology.”

Adolescent Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Adrenal Cortex: see “biological functions."

Adrenal Glands: see “biological functions."

Adrenal Medulla: see “biological functions."

Adrenalin: also referred to as “epinephrine.”

Adrenoleukodystorphy: see “neurological disorders.”

Adverb: see "communication:language:language structure."

Adult Development: see “developmental psychology.”

Adult Stem Cells: see "human anatomy:cells."

Aerial Perspective: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Aerobic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Aerobic Respiration: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Aesthetics: see "philosophy."

Affect: also referred to as "mood."

Affect Display: see "communication:nonverbal communication.”

Affected Sibling Pair: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Affective Component of Attitude: see “social psychology.”

Affective Disorders: also referred to as "mood disorders."

Affective Flatting: also referred to as "flat effect."

Afferent Nerve Fibers: also referred to as "afferent nerves."

Afferent Nerves: see "nervous system.”

Afferent Pathway: see "nervous system.”

Affirmative Action: see "learning:education."

Affix: see "communication:language:language structure."

Affixation: see "communication:language:language structure.”

A-Fib: see “atrial fibrillation.”

Agar: see "biological research."

Agentic Friendships: see “social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

Age of Reason: see "learning:education."

Aggression: see “behavior.”

Aggressive Listening: see "communication:listening."

AGNOSIA: see “neurological disorders.”

Agnosticism, Agnostic: see "philosophy."

Agoraphobia: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Agraphia: see "neurological disorders.”

Air Pollution: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Airway: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Albinism: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

Alcohol: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Alertness: see "learning:attention."

Alexia: see "neurological disorders:agnosia."

Alexia Sin Agraphia: see "neurological disorders:agnosia."

Algorithm: see "neuroscience research."

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: see "neurological disorders."

Alien Hand Syndrome: see “neurological disorders.”

Alien Limb Syndrome: also referred to as "alien hand syndrome."

Alien Subroutines: also referred to as “low road.”

Alimentary Canal: see "human anatomy."

Alkali, Alkaline: also referred to as “base.”

Alkaloids: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Allegory: see "communication:language."

Allele: see “genetics:genes.”

Allelic Variant: also referred to as “gene variant.”

Allergens: see "environment:environmental risks.”

Allergic Reaction: also referred to as “allergy.”

Allergic Response: also referred to as “allergy.”

Allergy, Allergic: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Allocortex: see "neuroanatomy."

Allosteric Inhibition: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Allosteric Site: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Alogia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Alphabet: see "communication:language:language structure."

Alpha Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Alpha Carbon: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Alpha Helix: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Alpha Testing: also referred to as "prototype testing."

Alternative RNA Splicing: also referred to as “alternative splicing.”

Alternative Splicing: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Altruism: see “behavior.”

Alu Element: also referred to as "alu sequence."

Alu Sequence: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: see “neurological disorders.”

Ambient Cistern: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Ambiguous: see "psychosocial research."

Ambush: also referred to as "aggressive listening."

American Academy: see "learning:schools."

American Sign Language: see "communication:language."

Amine: see “biochemistry.”

Amino: see “biochemistry.”

Amino Acids: see “biochemistry.”

Amino Acid Sequence: see “genetics:genome.”

Amino Acid Side Chain: also referred to as “R-group.”

Amino Group: see “biochemistry.”

Amino Terminus: also referred to as “N-terminus.”

Ammonia: see “biochemistry:elements.”

AMNESIA: see “neurological disorders.”

Amniocentesis: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Amnion: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Amniotic Cavity: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Amniotic Fluid: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Amniotic Sac: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Ampere: see “neuroscience research.”

Amphetamines: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Amphipathic: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Amplification: also referred to as “DNA amplification.”

Amplitude: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information."

Amputee Wannabe: also referred to as "body integrity identity disorder.”

AMUSIA: see “neurological disorders.”

Amygdala: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures.”

Amygdaloid Body: also referred to as "amygdala."

Amylase: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Anabolic Reaction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Anabolism, Anabolic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism.” 

Anaerobic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Anaerobic Metabolism: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism.”

Anaerobic Respiration: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Analgesics: see “medicine: medications.”

Analysis: also referred to as "training analysis."

Analysis of Teaching: see "instructional design:training analysis.”

Analysis of Variance: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Anaphase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division.”

Anaplasia: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Anatomy: see “biological specialty areas.”

Anchored Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Anchoring Junctions: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Andragogy: see “learning:education.”

Anemia: see “biological disorders.”

Anesthetics: see “medicine.”

Aneuploidy: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Anger: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Angular Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Animal Cloning: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Animal Model: see “neuroscience research.”

Animal Cognition: also referred to as "comparative cognition."

Animals: see “environment:organisms.”

Anion: see “biochemistry.”

Annealing: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Annotation: see "communication:language."

Anomalous: see "neuroanatomy."

Anomia: see “neurological disorders:aphasia.”

Anorexia Nervosa: see “behavioral disorders:eating disorders.”

Anosmia: see “neurological disorders.”

Anosognosia: see “neurological disorders.”

Anoxia: see "biological disorders."

Antabus: see “medicine:medications.”

Anterior: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Anterior Cingulate: also referred to as "anterior cingulate cortex."

Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC): see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures.”

Anterior Horizontal Ramus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Anterior Language Area: also referred to as “Broca's area.”

Anterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland: also referred to as “adenohypophysis.”

Anterior Nuclear Group: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus: also referred to as “anterior nuclear group.”

Anterior Paracentral Gyrus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes."

Anterograde Amnesia: see “neurological disorders:amnesia.”

Anterolateral Pathway: see “brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Anthropomorphism: see "behavior."

Anti-Allergic Drugs: see “medicine:medications.”

Antianxiety Drugs: see “medicine:medications.”

Antibiotic: see “medicine:medications.”

Antibody: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Anticodon: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA.”

Antidepressants: see “medicine:medications.”

Antidiuretic Hormone: also referred to as “vasopressin.”

Antigen, Antigenic: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Antigen Binding Site: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Antioxidants: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Anti-Parallel: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Antiporters: see “biological functions:cellular transport.”

Antipsychotics: see “medicine:medications.”

Antisepsis: see “medicine:medications.”

Antiseptic: see “medicine:medications.”

Antisocial Behavior: see “behavior.”

Antisocial Personality Disorder: see "behavioral disorders:personality disorders."

Anvil: also referred to as "incus."

Anxiety: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

ANXIETY DISORDERS: see “behavioral disorders.”

Anxiety Hierarchy: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Anxiety Neurosis: also referred to as "generalized anxiety disorder."

Aorta: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Aortic Regurgitation: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Aortic Valve: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Apathy: see “brain functions:emotion.”

Apes: also referred to as "great apes."

Apex, Apical: see "neuroanatomy."

APHASIA: see “neurological disorders.”

Aphasic Alexia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Aplysia: see "neuroscience research."

Apoplexy: see “stroke.”

Apoptosis: see “human anatomy:cells.”

Apotemnophila: also referred as "body integrity identity disorder."

Applied Research: see "psychosocial research."

Apply Concept Strategy: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Apply Principle Strategy: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Apply Procedure Strategy: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Apprehension: see "communication."

Appropriateness: see "communication.”

Apraxia: see “neurological disorders.”

A Priori: see "learning."

Aptitude: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Aptitude Test: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Aqueduct: see "neuroanatomy."

Aqueduct of Sylvius: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Arachnoid: also referred to as "arachnoid mater."

Arachnoid Cistern: also referred to as "cisterna."

Arachnoid Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Arbor: see "neuroanatomy."

Arborization, Arborize: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development."

Archaea: also referred to as "domain archaea."

Archein: see "neuroanatomy."

Archenteron: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Archetypes: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Archicortex: see “neuroanatomy."

Archicortex Molecular Layer: see “neuroanatomy.”

Archicortex Polymorphic Layer: see “neuroanatomy.”

Archicortex Pyramidal Layer: see “neuroanatomy.”

Archipallium: also referred to as “archicortex.”

ARCS MODEL: see "behavior:motivation."

Arcuate Fasiculus: see “nervous system."

Arcuate Fibers: also referred to as “association fibers.”

Arcurate Nucleus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon."

Area: also referred to as "brain region."

Area F5: see "brain functions:motion:motor structures."

Aripiprazole: also referred to as "third generation antipsychotics."

Aristotelian: see "philosophy."

Arm Paralysis (via stroke): see “neurological disorders.”

Arousal: see "learning:attention."

Arousal Theory: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Arrhythmia: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Arrhythmia Treatments: see “medicine:cardiology."

Arteriole: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Artery, Arterial: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Article: see "communication:language:language structure."

Articulation: see “human anatomy."

Artifact: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Artificial Intelligence (AI): see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Ascending Ramus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Ascribe: see "communication:language."

Asexual Reproduction: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Asperger’s Syndrome: see “neurological disorders:autism spectrum.”

Aspiny Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Associate, Associated: see "learning:association."

Associate Degree: see “learning:education;”

ASSOCIATION: see "learning."

Association Areas: also referred to as "association cortex."

ASSOCIATION CORTEX: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Association Drivers: see "learning:association."

Association Fibers: see “nervous system.”

Associative Activation: see "learning:association."

Associative Memory: also referred to as "association."

Associative Learning: see “learning:association."

Asthma: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Astigmatism: see "neurological disorders."

Astrocytes: see “nervous system:glia.”

Atavistic: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

Ataxia: see “neurological disorders.”

Atheism, Atheistic: see “philosophy."

Atherosclerosis: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Atlas: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Atom, Atomic: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Atomic Mass: also referred to as “mass.”

Atomic Number: see “biochemistry:elements.”

ATP Synthase: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Atri: see "human anatomy:organs."

Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib): see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Atrial Flutter (AFL): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Atrial Tachycardia: also referred to as "supraventricular tachycardia."

Atrioventricular Bundle: see "human anatomy:organs."

Atrioventricular Node: see "human anatomy:organs."

Atrioventricular Valve: also referred to as "tricuspid valve."

Atrium, Atria: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Atrophy: see "neurological disorders."

Attachment: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

ATTENTION: see "learning."

Attention Blindness: see "learning:attention."

Attention Concentration: also referred to as “concentration.”

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): see “behavioral disorders.”

Attention Disruption: see "learning:attention."

Attention Drivers: see "learning:attention."

Attention Focus: see "learning:attention."

Attention Getting Strategies: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Attention Pathways: see "learning:attention."

Attention Searchlight: see "learning:attention."

Attention Spotlight: also referred to as "attention searchlight.”

Attention Types: see "learning:attention."

Attitude: see “social psychology.”

Attractors: see "learning:attention."

Attribute: see "behavior:motivation:attribution."

ATTRIBUTION: see “behavior:motivation.”

Attributional Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Attributional Complexity: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Atypical Antipsychotics: also referred to as “second generation antipsychotics.”

Audience: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Audience Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

AUDITION: see "brain functions."

Audition Disorders: see “neurological disorders.”

Auditory Associative Agnosia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Auditory Cortex: also referred to as “primary auditory cortex.” 

AUDITORY INFORMATION: see “brain functions:audition.”

Auditory Meatus: also referred to as "ear canal."

Auditory Nerve: see “brain functions:audition:auditory pathways.”

Auditory Nucleus: see “brain functions:audition:auditory pathways.”

AUDITORY PATHWAYS: see “brain functions:audition.”

Auditory Perception: also referred to as "sound perception."

Auditory Processes: see “brain functions:audition.”

Auditory System: also referred to as "audition."

AUDITORY STRUCTURES: see “brain functions:audition.”

Aura: see “neurological disorders:epilepsy.”

Authentic Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Authoritarian Style: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Authoritative Style: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Autism, Autistic: see “neurological disorders:autism spectrum.”

AUTISM SPECTRUM: see “neurological disorders.”

Autism Spectrum Disorders: also referred to as “autism spectrum.”

Autocrine Signaling: see “biological functions.”

Autoimmune Disorders: see “biological disorders.”

Autoimmunity: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Autonomic Nervous System: see “nervous system.” 

Autonomy, Autonomic: see "social psychology:power."

Autoscopy: see “neurological disorders.”

Autosomal Dominant: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance.”

Autosomal Dominant Disorder: see “biological disorders.”

Autosomal Dominant Inheritance: also referred to as “autosomal dominant.”

Autosomal Recessive: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance.”

Autosomal Recessive Inheritance: also referred to as “autosomal recessive.”

Autosomes, Autosomal: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Availability Heuristic: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Aversive Conditioning: also referred to as "aversive conditioning therapy."

Aversive Conditioning Therapy: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Aversive Stimulus: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

AV Nodal Re-entry Tachycardia (AVNRT): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

AV Node: also referred to as "atrioventricular node.”

Avoiding: see "social psychology:relationships."

Avolition: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Awareness: see "learning:attention."

Axial: also referred to as “horizontal.”

Axiology: see "philosophy."

Axis, Axes: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Axon: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Axon Collaterals: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Axon Hillock: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Axon Membrane: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron structures."

Axon Potential: see “neurocommunication.”

Axon Terminal: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”BDNF: see "brain-derived neurotrophic factor."


BMI: see “brain-machine interface.”

Babbling: see "communication:language:language development.”

Babinski Reflex: also referred to as “plantar reflex.”

Bachelor’s Degree: see “learning:education;”

Backbone: also referred to as "spinal column.”

Backlight: see brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Back of the Cortex: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Bacteria, Bacterium: see “environment:organisms."

Bacterial Infection: see "biological disorders:infection.”

Bacteriophage: see "biological disorders:viruses.”

Bait and Switch: see "communication:speaking.”

Baker’s Yeast: also referred to as “S. cerevisiae.’

Balance: see “brain functions:motion.”

Balance System: also referred to as "vestibular system.”

Barbiturates: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Barriers: also referred to as "performance barriers."

Basal: see "neuroanatomy."

Basal Forebrain: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes."

BASAL GANGLIA: see "neuroanatomy."

Basal Motor Nuclei: also referred to as “basal ganglia.”

Basal Nuclei: also referred to as “basal ganglia.”

Base: see “biochemistry.”

Base Pair: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Base Sequence: also referred to as “DNA sequence.”

Basic: also referred to as "base."

Basic Research: see "psychosocial research."

Basilar Membrane: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

B Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Beaker: see "biology research."

Beautiful-Is-Good Effect: see “developmental psychology:personality.”

Becker Muscular Dystrophy: see “biological disorders:muscular dystrophy.”

BEHAVIOR: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Behavior Modification: also referred to as "behavioral therapies."

Behavior Theory: also referred to as "behaviorism."

Behavior Types: see "behavior."

Behavioral Component of Attitude: see “social psychology.”

BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Behavioral Genetics: see "biology specialty areas."

Behavioral Neuroscience: see "neuroscience specialty areas.”

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES: see “behavior.”

BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES: see “psychotherapy.”

Behaviorism: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Behaviorist: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Behaviorist Learning Theory: also referred to as “empiricism.”

Belief Bias Effect: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Belladonna: see “medicine:medications.”

Bell and Pad Therapy: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Benedict’s Reagent: see “biology research.”

Bennies: also referred to as "amphetamine."

Benzodiazepines: see “medicine:medications:antianxiety drugs.”

Bereavement: also referred to as “grief.”

Bergmann Glia: see “nervous system:glia.”

Beta-Amyloid Plaques: see "neurological disorders:Alzheimer’s disease.”

Beta Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Beta Blocker: see “medicine:medications.”

Beta Pleated Sheet: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Beta Testing: also referred to as "prototype testing."

BIAS: see “psychosocial research.”

Biased Sampling: also referred to as "sample bias."

Bicuspid Valve: also referred to as "mitral valve."

Bilayer: also referred to as “phospholipid bilayer.”

Bile: see "human anatomy."

Bile Salts: see "human anatomy."

Bilingual Education: see "communication:language:language learning."

Bilingualism: see "communication:language:language learning."

Binary Fission: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Bind: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Binding: see “bind.”

Binding Site: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Binocular: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Binocular Disparity: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Binocular Convergence: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

BIOCHEMISTRY: see “BIOLOGY.”

Biofeedback: see "neurology."

Biofouling: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Bioinformatics: see "biology specialty areas.”

BIOLOGY: see “biology specialty areas.”

BIOLOGICAL DISORDERS: see “BIOLOGY.”

BIOLOGICAL ENERGY: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Biological Evolution: also referred to as “evolution.”

BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS: see “BIOLOGY.”

Biological Markers: see “medicine.”

Biological Measurements: see “biology research.”

Biological Membrane: also referred to as "cell membrane."

Biological Preparedness: see “learning:learning theories."

Biological Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Biological Staining and Labeling: see “biology research.”

BIOLOGY RESEARCH: see “BIOLOGY.”

BIOLOGY SPECIALTY AREAS: see “BIOLOGY.”

Biology Units: see “biology research.”

Biomarkers: see “biological markers.”

Biomembrane: also referred to as "cell membrane.”

Biometrics: also referred to as “biostatistics.”

Bioreactor: see “genetics:genetic research."

Biosphere: see “environment."

BIOSTATISTICS: see “medicine.”

Biotechnology: see "biological specialty areas."

Bipolar Disorder: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Bipolar Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Bird Flu Virus: also referred to as “avian flu virus.”

Birds-Of-A-Feather Effect: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Biuret Reagent: see “biology research.” 

Bivalent: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Bizarreness Effect: see "learning:attention."

Black-Box Method: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Bladder: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Bladder Cancer: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Blaming the Victim: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Blank Slate: also referred to as "tabula rasa."

Blastocyst: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Blastomere: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Blastopore: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Blended Emotions: see "brain functions:emotion.”

Blended Family: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Blended Learning: see "learning:instructional design:training implementation."

Blinded Study: also referred to as "single blind study.”

Blind Sight: see “brain functions:vision:visual pathways.”

Blind Spot: see "vision:visual structures.”

Blindness: see “neurological disorders.”

Blood: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Blood Brain Barrier: see “neuroanatomy."

Blood Clot: see “biological disorders.”

Blood Glucose: also referred to as "blood sugar."

Blood Groups: see “genetics:genes."

Blood Pressure: see “medicine."

Blood Sugar: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Blood Vessel: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Blue Brain Project: see "neuroscience research.”

Blue Person Disease: see “biological disorders.”

B Lymphocytes: also referred to as “B-cells.”

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Body: see "human anatomy."

Body Cells: also referred to as "somatic cells."

Body Dysmorphic Disorder: see “behavioral disorders.”

Body Image: see "self awareness."

Body Integrity Identity Disorder: see “neurological disorders.”

Body Mandala: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Body Map: also referred to as “brain map.”

Body Schema: also referred to as “kinesthetic perception.”

Boil: see "biological disorders:infection.”

Bond: see “chemical bond.”

Bonding: see "social psychology:relationships."

Bone: see “human anatomy.”

Bone Marrow: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Borderline Personality Disorders: see "behavioral disorders:personality disorders.”

Boredom: see “brain functions:emotion.”

Bottom-Up Attention: see "learning:attention."

Bottom-Up Processing: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Bouton Terminaux: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Bowen Disease: also referred to as “precancerous dermatitis.”

Brady: also referred to as "bradycardia."

Bradyarrhythmia: also referred to as "bradycardia."

Bradycardia: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Braille: see “communication:language.”

Brain: see "neuroanatomy."

Brain Area: also referred to as "brain region."

Brain Cell: also referred to as "neuron."

Brain Circuit: also referred to as “neural pathway.”

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Brain Disorders: also referred to as ‘neurological disorders.’

Brain Fitness: see "neurology."

BRAIN FUNCTIONS: see “NEUROSCIENCE”

Brain-Machine Interface (BMI): see "neuroscience research."

Brain Map: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Brain Model: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Brain Orientation: see “brain divisions and orientations.”

Brain Performance Envelope: see "brain functions:cognition:problem solving."

Brain Port: see "neurology."

Brain Region: see "neuroanatomy:ways to describe brain divisions."

Brain Research: also referred to as "neuroscience research." 

Brain Sports Training Techniques: see "neurology."

Brain Stem: see "neuroanatomy."

Brain-Stimulation Reward: also referred to as "self-stimulation."

Brain Surface(s): see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain.”

Brain Surgery: also referred to as ‘neurosurgery.’

Brain Systems: also referred to as "brain functions."

Break Down: see “degradation.”

Breast Cancer: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Breathing: also referred to as “respiration.”

Breeding: see “genetics:genetic research."

Brightness, Bright: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Broca’s Area: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes."

Broca's Aphasia: see “neurological disorders:aphasia.”

Brodmann Area: see "neuroanatomy:ways to describe brain divisions."

Brodmann Area 3: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

Brodmann Area 4: also referred to as "primary motor cortex."

Brodmann Area 17: also referred to as “primary visual cortex.”

Bronchi: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Brownian Motion: see "biological functions:cellular transport.”

Buffer: see “biology research.”

Bulimia Nervosa: see “behavioral disorders:eating disorders.”

Bundle: also referred to as “tract.”

Bundle of HIS: also referred to as “atrioventricular bundle.”

Buproprion: also referred to as "Wellbutrin."

Buspar: see “medicine:medications:antianxiety drugs.”

Bystander Effect: see "social psychology:relationships:group.”Ca: chemical symbol for “calcium.”


CAM: see "cell adhesion molecules."

cAMP: see “cyclic AMP.”

cDNA: see “complementary DNA.”

cRNA: see “complementary RNA.”

Cl: chemical symbol for "chlorine"

CPEB: see “cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein.”

CREB: see “cyclic AMP response element-binding protein.”

CREB-1: see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

CREB-2: see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Cadherins: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Calcarine Fissure: also referred to as  “calcarine sulcus.”

Calcarine Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Calcium: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Calcium Channel: see “biological functions:cellular transport.”

Calcium Ions: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Callosal Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Campus School: also referred to as "lab school.”

Canavan Disease: see “neurological disorders.”

CANCER: see "biological disorders."

Cancer Incidence: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Cancer Prevalence: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Cancer Risk: see “medicine:biostatistics.

Cancer Screening: see “medicine.”

Cancer Subtype: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cancer Surgery: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cancer Treatments: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cancer Types: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cancer Vaccine: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cannabis: also referred to as "marijuana."

Cap: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Capgras Delusion: also referred to as "capgras syndrome."

Capgras Syndrome: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Capillary: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Capsule: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

CARBOHYDRATES: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Carbon: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Carbon Dioxide: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Carbon Footprint: see "biochemistry:elements."

Carbon Monoxide: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Carbonyl Group: see “biochemistry.”

Carboxyl Group, Carboxylic: see “biochemistry.”

Carboxyl Terminus: also referred to as “C-terminus.”

Carcinogens: see "environment:environmental risks."

Carcinoma: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Cardiac: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Cardiac Ablation: see “medicine:cardiology."

Cardiac Arrest: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Cardiac Cycle: see "human anatomy:organs."

Cardiac Echo: also referred to as "echocardiogram."

Cardiac Electronic Devices: see “medicine:cardiology."

Cardiac Reflex: see "human anatomy:organs."

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: see “medicine:cardiology."

CARDIOLOGY: see "medicine."

Cardiomyopathy: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Cardiovascular: see “biological functions:circulation.”

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: see "biological disorders.”

Cardiovascular System: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Carotenoids: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: see "biological disorders."

Carrier: see “genetics:genes.”

Carrier-Mediated Proteins: also referred to as “transporters."

Carrier Proteins: also referred to as "transporters."

Cartilage: see “human anatomy.”

Case-Based Learning: see "learning:learning types.”

Case Control Study: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Case Study: see "psychosocial research."

Catabolism, Catabolic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism.”

Catalyst, Catalytic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Cataplexy: see "behavioral disorders."

Catastrophic Conditions Theory: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Catatonic Schizophrenia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Catecholamines: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones.” 

Category Learning: see "learning:learning types.”

Category Linkage: see "learning:association."

Cation: see “biochemistry.”

Cauda: see "neuroanatomy."

Cauda Equina: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Caudal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Caudate Nucleus: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Caudatoputamen: also referred to as "corpus striatum."

Causality: see "learning:association."

Causation: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Cause Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Cause and Effect: also referred to as "causality."

Cavity: see “neuroanatomy."

CA Zones: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

CELL, Cellular: see “human anatomy."

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM): see "genetics:proteomics:proteins." 

Cell Apoptosis: see "human anatomy:cells."

Cell Biology: see “biology specialty areas.”

Cell Birth: also referred to as "neurogenesis."

Cell Body (Neuron): see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Cell Communication: also referred to as “cellular communication.”

Cell Cycle: see “human anatomy:cells.”

Cell Differentiation: see “developmental biology.”

CELL DIVISION: see "human anatomy:cells."

Cell Division Process: also referred to as “cell division.”

Cell Doctrine: also referred to as “cell theory.”

Cell Growth: see “developmental biology.”

Cell Layer: see “cerebral cortex layers.”

Cell Lineage: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Cell Membrane: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Cell Migration: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development.”

Cell Nucleus: also referred to as “nucleus."

Cell Process: also referred to as “axon.”

Cell Respiration: see "human anatomy:cells."

Cell Signaling: also referred to as “signaling.”

CELL STRUCTURES: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Cell Surface Membrane: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cell Theory: see "human anatomy:cells."

Cells of Martinotti: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Cellular Adhesion: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Cellular Adhesion Molecules: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Cellular Communication: see “biological functions.”

Cellular Immune Response: see “biological functions:immunity.”

CELLULAR TRANSPORT: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Cellular Membrane: also referred to as "cell membrane."

Cellular Respiration: also referred to as "respiration."

Cellulose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Centimeter: see “neuroscience units.”

Centimorgan: see "biology research.”

Central Aqueduct: also referred to as “aqueduct of sylvius."

Central Auditory Pathway: see “brain functions:audition:auditory pathways.”

Central Canal: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Central Dogma: see "genetics:genes."

Central Fissure: also referred to as "central sulcus.”

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: see "nervous system.”

Central Nervous System Cancer: see "biological disorders:cancer."

Central Pain: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Central Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Central Sulcus of Rolando: also referred to as "central sulcus.”

Centrioles: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Centromere: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Centrosome: see “human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cerebellar Hemispheres: see "neuroanatomy."

Cerebellum: see "neuroanatomy."

Cerebral: see "neuroanatomy."

Cerebral Aqueduct: also referred to as “aqueduct of Sylvius.”

CEREBRAL CORTEX: see "neuroanatomy."

Cerebral Cortex Layers: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Cerebral Hemispheres: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Cerebral Mantle: also referred to as “cerebral cortex.”

Cerebrospinal Fluid: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Cerebrum: see "neuroanatomy." 

Cervical: see "neuroanatomy."

Cervical Vertebrae: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column.”

C Fibers: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Channels: also referred to as “channel proteins.”

Channel Proteins: see “biological functions:cellular transport.”

Chaperone Proteins: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Chargaff's Rules: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Charles Bonnet Syndrome: see “neurological disorders.”

Charter School: see "learning:schools."

CHEMICAL BONDS: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Chemical Equations: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Chemical Messengers: see “neurotransmitters.”

CHEMICAL REACTIONS: see “biochemistry.”

Chemical Synapse: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Chemical Transmitter: also referred to as "neurotransmitter."

Chemiosmosis: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Chemoreceptors: also referred to as “olfactory receptors.”

Chemotherapy: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Chiasma, Chiasmata: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division.”

Chickenpox: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Child: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT: see “developmental psychology.”

Child Development School: also referred to as "lab school."

Child Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Chitin: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Chloride: see “biochemistry:elements."

Chloride Channel: see “biological functions:cellular transport.”

Chlorine (Cl): see "biochemistry:elements."

Chlorophyll: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Cholera: see “biological disorders.”

Cholesterol: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Cholinergic Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Chorion: see “developmental biology:reproduction.”

Chorionic Villi: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Chorionic Villi Sampling: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Choroid Plexus: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Chromatid: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Chromatin: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: also referred to as "chromatin remodeling.”

Chromatin Remodeling: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

CHROMOSOME(S): see “genetics."

Chromosome Banding: see “genetics:genetic research.”

CHROMOSOME DISORDERS: see “biological disorders.”

Chromosome Ideogram: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Chromosome Microarray Analysis: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Chromosome Structure: see “genetics:chromosomes.”

Chromosome Territory: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Chronemics: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Chronic: see “biological disorders."

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: see “neurological disorders.”

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Chronic Pain: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Chronic Stress: see "neurological disorders:stress."

Cilia: see "human anatomy."

Cinereus: see "neuroanatomy."

Cingulate: also referred to as "cingulate cortex."

Cingulate Cortex: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Cingulate Gyrus: also referred to as "cingulate cortex."

Cingulate Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Cingulum: see "neuroanatomy."

Circadian Arousal System: see "learning:attention."

Circadian Rhythms: see "learning:attention." 

Circuit: also referred to as "neural pathway."

Circuit System: see “neuroanatomy."

Circular Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

CIRCULATION, Circulation: see "biological functions.”

Circumscribing: see "social psychology:relationships."

Cistern: a fluid-filled cavity in an organism or cell. (Oxford)

Cisterna, Cisternae: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Cisterna Magna: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Cistine: see “biochemistry:amino acids.”

Clairvoyance: see "brain functions:perception."

Clarity: see "learning:learning drivers."

Class: see “environment:taxonomy."

Classical Behavior: see “behavior:conditioning."

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: see "behavior:conditioning."

Classroom Environment: also referred to as "learning environment."

Clause: see "communication:language:language structure."

Claustrum: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Cleavage: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Cleavage Furrow: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Cleavage Phase of Glycolysis: see "biological functions:respiration."

Client-Centered Therapy: see “psychotherapy:humanistic therapies.”

Climate Change: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Clinical: see “medicine.”

Clinical Psychologist: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Clinical Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Clinical Research: see “biology research.”

Clinical Research Assistant: see “biology research.”

Clinical Researcher: see “biology research.”

Clinical Study: see “biology research.”

Clinical Trial: see “biology research.”

Clone: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Clone Bank: also referred to as “genomic library.”

Clone Library: also referred to as “genomic library.”

Cloning: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Cloning DNA: also referred to as “gene cloning.”

Cloning Vector: also referred to as “vector.”

Clustering: see "learning:association."

Coalition: see “social psychology:relationships:group.”

Cocaine: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Coccyx: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Cochlea, Cochlear: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

Cochlear Hair Cells: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Cochlear Implant: see “neurology.”

Cochlear Nerve: also referred to as “auditory nerve.”

Cochlear Nucleus: also referred to as “auditory nucleus.”

Code Script: also referred to as “genetic code.”

Codeine: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Coding, Code: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Coding Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Co-Dominance: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Codominant Alleles: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Codon: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Coefficient of Correlation: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Coefficient of Relatedness: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Coenzymes: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Cofactors: also referred to as “coenzymes.”

COGNITION: see "brain functions."

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): see “psychotherapy:cognitive therapies.”

Cognitive Competence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Cognitive Component of Attitude: see “social psychology.”

Cognitive Development: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Cognitive Dissonance: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Cognitive Dysfunction: see “neurological disorders.”

Cognitive Ease: see "learning:learning environment."

Cognitive Enhancers: also referred to as “nootropic agents.”

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Cognitive Neuroscience: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Cognitive Objectivism: also referred to as "cognitivism."

Cognitive Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Cognitive Reframing: see "psychotherapy:cognitive therapies."

Cognitive Reserve: see "cognition."

Cognitive Science: also referred to as "cognitive neuroscience."

Cognitive Strain: see "learning:learning environment."

Cognitive Theory: also referred to as "cognitivism."

COGNITIVE THERAPIES: see “psychotherapy.”

Cognitivism: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Cognitivist: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Coherence: see "learning:learning drivers.”

Cohort Study: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Collagen: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Collateral: see "neuroanatomy."

Collaterals: also referred to as “axon collaterals.”

Collateral Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Collection Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Collective Unconscious: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Collectivist Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

College: also referred to as "university."

Colliculus: see “superior colliculus.”

Colonial Colleges: see “learning:schools."

Colony Stimulating Factors: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Color: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Color Blindness: see "neurological disorders.”

Coloring Agents: see “biology research.”

Color Perception: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Column: see “neuroanatomy.”

Coma: see "biological disorders."

Command Cells: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Commissural Fibers: see “nervous system.”

Commissure: see "neuroanatomy."

Common Elementary School: see "learning:schools."

Communal Friendships: see “social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

COMMUNICATION: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Communication Channel: see "communication.”

Communication Competence: see "communication.”

Communication Models: see "communication.”

Communication Plans: also referred to as "communication strategies."

Communication Skills: see "communication.”

Communication Types: see "communication.”

Community: see “environment."

Community Genomics: also referred to as “environmental genomics.”

Companionate Love: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states.”

Comparative Anatomy: see “human anatomy.”

Comparative Cognition: see “cognition."

Comparative Genomics: see “biology specialty areas.”

Comparative Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Compartmentalization, Compartmental: see "human anatomy:cells."

Compassion: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Competence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Competence Motivation: see “behavior:motivation."

Competency: also referred to as “competence.”

Competitive Inhibition: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Complementary DNA (cDNA): see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA."

Complementary RNA (cRNA): see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Complementary Relationships: see "social psychology:relationships."

Complementary Repeats: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Complementary Sequence: see “genetics:genome."

Completely Dominant: also referred to as “dominant.”

Completely Penetrant: see “genetics:genes:gene expression.”

Complex: see “biochemistry."

Complex Diseases: see “biological disorders.”

Complex Disorders: also referred to as “complex diseases.”

COMPLEX INHERITANCE: see “genetics:inheritance."

Component Design Theory: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Component Display Theory: see "learning:instructional strategies.”

Compound: see “biochemistry.”

Compound Heterozygote: see "genetics:genes."

Comprehension Vocabulary: see "communication:language:language learning."

Compromise: see “communication:speaking."

Compulsive Behavior: see “behavior.”

Concavity: see "neuroanatomy."

Concentration: see "learning:attention."

Concentration (of solution): see “biology research."

Concept: also referred to as "key concept."

Conceptually-Driven Processing: also referred to as "top-down processing."

Conclusion: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Concordance: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Concrete Operational Stage: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

Condensation: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Conditional Love: also referred to as "conditional positive regard."

Conditional Positive Regard: see "behavior:behavioral theories.”

Conditioned Culture Media: see “biology research.”

Conditioned Reinforcer: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Conditioned Response: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Conditioned Stimulus: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

CONDITIONING: see “behavior."

Conduction: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Conduction Deafness: see "neurological disorders.”

Conductive Hearing Loss: also referred to as “conduction deafness.”

Conductivity: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Cones: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Confidence Building Strategies: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Confirmation Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Conflict: see "social psychology:relationships."

Conformation: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure.”

Conformational Change: see “conformation.”

Conformity: see "social psychology:relationships:group.”

Confrontive Coping: see "neurology."

Congenital: see "genetics:inheritance."

Congenital Amusia: also referred to as “amusia."

Congestive Heart Failure: also referred to as “cardiomyopathy.”

Conjugation: see "communication:language:language learning."

Conjunction: see "communication:language:language structure."

Connection: see “synaptic connection.”

Connective Tissue: see "human anatomy:tissues.”

Connotative Meaning: see "communication:language.”

Consanguinity: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

Conscious: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Conscious Attention: also referred to as "selective attention."

Consciousness: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Consensus: see “brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Consolidating, Consolidation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Constitutive Rules: see "communication:language:language learning."

Constraints: also referred to as "performance barriers."

Constructivism, Constructivist: see “learning:learning theories."

Contemporary Psychoanalysis: also referred to as “psychoanalytic theory.”

Content Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Content-Oriented Listeners: see "communication:listening."

Content Standards: see "learning:education."

Contexere: see "neuroanatomy."

Context, Contexual: see "communication:language:language structure."

Context Effect: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Context-Dependent Learning: see "learning:learning types."

Contiguity, Contiguous: see "learning:association."

Contingencies: see "communication."

Contingency Management Interventions: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.” 

Continuous Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Continuous Variation: see "genetics:complex inheritance.”

Contour: see “brain functions:audition.”

Contraction: see “human anatomy.”

Contralateral: see “neuroanatomy."

Contrast: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Control: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Control Group: also referred to as "control."

Control Region: also referred to as "promotor region.”

Control Sample: also referred to as "control."

Conus Medullaris: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Convergence: see “neurocommunication.”

Conversion Disorder: see “behavioral disorders.”

Convey: also referred to as “transmit.”

Conveyance: also referred to as “transmission.”

Convoluted: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Cooing: see "communication:language:language development."

Cooperative Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Cooperative Learning: also referred to as "cooperative instruction."

Cooperative Principle: see “communication:speaking."

Coordination and Gait Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam."

Coping: see "neurology."

Copy Number Variations: also referred to as “copy number variants.’

Copy Number Variants: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Coronal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain.”

Coronary Artery Disease: also referred to as “coronary heart disease."

Coronary Heart Disease: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Corpus Callosum: see "neuroanatomy."

Corpus Striatum: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Corrective Lenses: see "neurology."

Correlation: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Correlational Study: see “psychosocial research.”

Cortex, Cortical: see “neuroanatomy."

Cortical Column: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Cortical Region: see "neuroanatomy."

Cortical Sulci: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Corticobulbar Tract: also referred to as "corticonuclear tract."

Corticoid Areas: see "neuroanatomy."

Corticonuclear Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Corticospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Corticotectal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Cortisol: see “neurological disorders:stress.”

Cotard Syndrome: see “neurological disorders.”

Counseling Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Counselor: also referred to as "licensed professional counselor."

Counter Conditioning: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Couples Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Covalent Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Covert Performance: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Cranial Arachnoid: also referred to as "arachnoid mater."

Cranial Nerves: see "nervous system."

Cranial Nerves Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam.”

Cranial Sinuses: also referred to as ‘venous sinuses of dura mater.’

Cranium: also referred to as “skull.”

Crenation: see "biological disorders."

Cribriform Plate: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Criterion, Criteria: see "psychosocial research."

Criterion Referenced Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Criterion Referenced Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Critical Incident Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Critical Period: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Critical Thinking: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Cross-Cultural Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Cross Fertilization: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Crossing-Over: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Crus: see "neuroanatomy."

Crus Cerebri: see “nervous system.”

C-System: also referred to as "high road.”

C-Terminus: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Cultural Capital: see "social psychology:power."

Cultural Competence: see “brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Cultural Devices: also referred to as “pattern recognition devices.”

Cultural Norms: see "social psychology:culture.”

Cultural Relativism: see "philosophy.”

CULTURE: see "social psychology.”

Culture-Centered Focus: see "social psychology:culture.”

Culture Media: see “biology research.”

Cumulative Annoyance: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Cuneus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:occipital lobes.”

Current: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Curriculum: see “learning:education."

Cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Cyclothymic Disorder: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Cymbalta: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Cystic Fibrosis: see "biological disorders.”

Cytogenics: see “biology specialty areas.”

Cytokines: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Cytokinesis: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Cytoplasm: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element-Binding Protein (CPEB): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Cytoplasmic Streaming: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cytosine: see “biochemistry."

Cytoskeleton, Cytoskeletal: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cytosol: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Cytotoxicity: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Cytotoxic T-Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”DBS: see "deep brain stimulation."


DNA: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

DSM: see "diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders."

DTI: see "diffusion tensor imaging.”

Dame School: see "learning:schools."

Data: see “communication:information.”

Data Analysis: see "psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Data Collection: see "psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Data-Driven Processing: also referred to as "bottom-up processing.”

Data Graphics: see “communication.”

Daughter Cells: see “human anatomy:cells:cell division.”

Daughter Strands: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Deactivation: see "brain functions:emotion.”

Deafness: see “neurological disorders.”

Deception: see "communication:speaking."

Decibel: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information."

DECISION STRATEGIES: see "brain functions:cognition."

Declarative Memory: also referred to as "explicit memory."

Decomposition Reaction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Decussation, Decussate: see "neuroanatomy."

Deduce: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Deduction: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Deep Brain Stimulation: see “neurology.”

Deep Fascia: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

Deep Tendon Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

De Facto Segregation: see "learning:education."

Defensive Messages: see "communication:information."

Defensiveness: see "communication."

Degenerate: see "biochemistry:biological energy."

Degenerate Code: see “genetics:genetic code."

Degeneration, Degenerate: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Degenerative Disease: see "biological disorders."

Degradation, Degraded: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Degree: see “learning:education.”

DeGroot’s Condition: also referred to as "central pain.”

Dehydration: see “biological disorders.”

Dehydration Synthesis: also referred to as “condensation."

Deinococcus Radiodurans: see “environment:organisms."

Deism, Deistic: see "philosophy."

Déjá Vu: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Dejection: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

De Jure Segregation: see "learning:education."

Deletion: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation."

Delusions: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Delusions of Grandeur: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Delusions of Persecution: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Delusions of Reference: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Dementia, Demented: see “neurological disorders.”

Demonstration School: also referred to as "lab school.”

Demyelination: see “neurological disorders.”

Denaturation, Denature: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Dendrites: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Dendritic Spine: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Denial: see "neurology."

Denotative Meaning: see “communication:language."

De Novo Mutation: also referred to as “spontaneous mutation.”

Dentate: see "neuroanatomy."

Dentate Gyrus: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Dentate Nucleus: see "neuroanatomy."

Deoxyribonucleic Acid: also referred to as "DNA." 

Deoxyribose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Dependence: see "neurochemistry:narcotics."

Dependent Personality Disorders: see "behavioral disorders:personality disorders."

Dependent Variable: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Depolarization, Depolarize: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Depth Perception: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Depression: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders:major depression.” 

Descriptive Cognition: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Desegregation: see "learning:education."

Design: also referred to as "training design."

Desmosomes: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Despair: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Despondency: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Deterioration of Adaptive Behavior: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Determinism: see "philosophy."

Detoxify: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Development: see "developmental biology."

Development (instructional design): also referred to as "training development."

Developmental Anatomy: see “human anatomy.”

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: see “BIOLOGY.”

Developmental Genetics: see "biology specialty areas."

Developmental Neuroscience: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Developmental Reading Disorder: also referred to as "dyslexia."

Developmental Word Blindness: also referred to as "dyslexia."

Deviance: see “behavioral disorders.”

DIABETES: see "biological disorders.”

Diabetes Insipidus: see "biological disorders:diabetes."

Diabetes Mellitus: also referred to as "diabetes."

Diagnosis, Diagnostic: see "medicine."

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): see “behavioral disorders.”

Diagnostic Reagents and Test Kits: see “biology research.”

Diagnostic Tests: see “medicine.”

Dialects: see "communication:language.”

Diaphragm: see “human anatomy.”

Diastolic Blood Pressure: see “medicine.”

Diazepam: see “medicine:medications:antianxiety drugs.”

Diencephalic Nuclei: see "neuroanatomy:diencephalon."

DIENCEPHALON: see "neuroanatomy."

Differentiating: see "social psychology:relationships."

Differentiation: also reffered to as "cell differentiation."

Diffraction Pattern: see "biology research."

Diffusion: see "biological functions:cellular transport."

Diffusion MRI: also referred to as "diffusion tensor imaging."

Diffusion of Responsibility: see "social psychology:relationships:group.”

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI): see "neuroscience research."

Digestion, Digestive: see "biological functions."

Dihybrid Cross: see “genetics:genetic research."

Dimer: see “biochemistry:molecules.”

Diploid Cell: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Direct DNA Analysis: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Direct Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Direct Intercellular Signaling: see “biological functions.”

Direct Repeat Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Direct To Consumer Testing: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Dirty Secrets: see "communication:information."

Disaccharides: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Disaggregated: see “learning:education."

Disc: also referred to as “intervertebral disc.”

Discernment: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Discovery Based Science: also referred to as ‘discovery science.'

Discovery Science: see "psychosocial research."

Discrete Inheritance: also referred to as "mendelian inheritance."

Discrimination: see "social psychology:culture.”

Disease: see “biological disorders.”

Disease Screening: see “medicine.”

Disease Vector: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Disgust: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

Disorder: see “biological disorders.”

Disorganized Schizophrenia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Disorganized Thinking: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Disorganized Thought Processes: also referred to as "disorganized thinking."

Displaced Aggression: see “behavior.”

Displacement: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Displacement (language): see "communication:language."

Display Rules: see "social psychology:culture."

Disposition: see "philosophy."

Dispositional Attribution: also referred to as "internal attribution."

Dissociative Amnesia: see “neurological disorders:dissociative disorders.”

DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS: see “behavioral disorders.”

Dissociative Fugue: see “behavioral disorders:dissociative disorders.”

Dissociative Identity Disorder: see “behavioral disorders:dissociative disorders.”

Distancing: see "neurology."

Distinctiveness: see "learning:learning drivers."

Distorted Perceptions: also referred to as "hallucinations."

Distribution: see "brain functions."

Disturbed Emotions: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Disulfide Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Divergence: see “neurocommunication.”

Divergent Thinking Model: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies." 

Diversity: see "social psychology:culture."

Division: also referred to as “phylum."

Dizygotic Twins (DZ Twins): see “genetics:inheritance.”

DNA Amplification: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Bank: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Banking: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Fingerprinting: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

DNA Fragment: see “genetics:genome.”

DNA Ligase: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

DNA Methylation: also referred to as “methylation.”

DNA Microarray Analysis: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Molecule: also referred to as “DNA.”

DNA Polymerase: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication."

DNA Primer: also referred to as “primer."

DNA Probe: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA REPLICATION: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

DNA Replication Components: see “biochemistry:DNA.”

DNA Replication Enzymes: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

DNA Replication Strands: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

DNA Replication in Vitro: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Segment: also referred to as “DNA sequence.”

DNA Sequence: see “genetics:genome.”

DNA Sequence Analysis: also referred to as “DNA sequencing.”

DNA Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

DNA Storage: also referred to as “DNA banking.”

DNA Synthesizer: see "genetics:genetic research."

DNA Transformation: see “genetics:genetic research.”

DNA Virus: also referred to as “viral DNA.”

Doctorate Degree: see “learning:education;”

Domain (intelligence): see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Domain: see “environment:taxonomy."

Domain Archaea: see “environment:taxonomy."

Domain Bacteria: see “environment:taxonomy."

Domain Eukarya: see “environment:taxonomy."

Dominant: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Domination: see "communication:speaking."

Dopamine: see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Dopaminergic Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Dopamine Hypothesis: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Dopamine Reward System: also referred to as "mesolimbic dopamine system."

Dorsal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Dorsal Horn: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Dorsal Nerve Roots: also referred to as "dorsal roots."

Dorsal Pathway: also referred to as "how pathway."

Dorsal Rootlets: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal nerves."

Dorsal Roots: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal nerves."

Dorsal Tier: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Dorsomedial Nucleus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Double Blind Study: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Double Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Double Helix: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Doubt: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

Down Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Dream Analysis: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Dreaming: see "brain functions:perception.”

Dressing Apraxia: see “neurological disorders.”

Drive: see “behavior:motivation."

Drive Reduction Theory: also referred to as “drive theories.”

Drive Theories: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Driver Analysis: also referred to as “cause analysis.”

Drivers: also referred to as "causes."

Driving Forces: see “brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Droughts: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Drug Addiction: also referred to as "addiction."

Drugs: see "neurochemistry."

Drugs of Abuse: also referred to as "narcotics."

Dual Identified Student: see "learning:education."

Dual Process Account: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Dual Signal:  see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Dualism, Dualistic: see “philosophy."

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: see “biological disorders:muscular dystrophy.”

Duodenum: see "human anatomy:organs."

Dura: also referred to as "dura mater."

Dura Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Dye: see “biology research.”

Dynamic Instability: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Dynamic Learning Experience: also referred to as "experiential learning."

Dys: see "neuroanatomy."

Dyscalculia: see “neurological disorders.”

Dysfunction: see “neurological disorders.”

Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs: see "social psychology:relationships."

Dysgraphia: also referred to as “agraphia.”

Dyslexia: see “neurological disorders.”

Dysphoria: see “neurological disorders.”

Dysplasia: see “neurological disorders.” 

Dysthymic Disorder: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Dystonia, Dystonic: see “neurological disorders.”

Drystrophin: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

DZ Twins: see “dizygotic twins.”ECG: see "electrocardiogram."


ECM: see "extracellular matrix."

EEG: see "electroencephalograph."

EKG: see "electrocardiogram."

EPS: see "electrophysiology study."

ER: see "endoplasmic reticulum."

ESL: see "english as a second language."

ESP: see “extrasensory perception.”

Early Nervous System Development: see “developmental biology:nervous system development.”

Ear Canal: see "audition:auditory structures."

Eardrum: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

EATING DISORDERS: see “behavioral disorders.”

Ebbinghaus Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Ebola Fever: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Ebola Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Echo: see “brain functions:audition.”

Echocardiogram, Echo: see “medicine:cardiology.”

Echocardiography: see “medicine:cardiology.”

E. Coli: see “environment:organisms."

Ecology: see "environment."

Ecological Validity: see "psychosocial research."

Ecosystem: see "environment."

Ectoderm, Ectodermal: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Edge Light: see brain functions:vision:visual information.”

EDUCATION: see “learning.”

Education Neuroscience: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Education Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Education Standards: see “learning:education."

Educational Institutions: also referred to as “schools.”

Educational Technology: also referred to as "instructional design.”

Educator: also referred to as “teacher.”

Edwards Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Effectiveness: see "communication.”

Effective Teaching: see “learning:education."

Effector Genes: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Effector Proteins: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Efferent Nerve Fibers: also referred to as "efferent nerves."

Efferent Nerves: see "nervous system.”

Efferent Neurons: also referred to as “efferent nerves.”

Efferent Pathway: see "nervous system.”

Efferents: also referred to as “efferent nerve fibers.”

Effexor: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Effortless Experts: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Egg: also referred to as "oocyte."

Egg Cell: also referred to as "oocyte."

Ego: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Ego Boundaries: see “self awareness.”

Ego Defense Mechanisms: also referred to as "freudian defense mechanisms."

Ego Depletion: see "self awareness."

Ego Integrity: see "self awareness."

Eicosanoids: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids."

Elaboration, Elaborative: see "learning:learning drivers."

Elaborative Encoding: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Elaborative Rehearsal: see “learning:repetition."

Elapsed Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Elastic: see "biochemistry."

Elastin: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Electrical Synapse: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Electrical Transmission: see “neurocommunication.”

Electrocardiogram (ECG): see “medicine:cardiology.”

Electrocardiography: see “medicine:cardiology.”

Electrochemical Gradient: see "biochemistry."

Electrochemistry, Electrochemical: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Electroconvulsive Therapy: see “neurology.”

Electroencephalograph: see "neuroscience research.”

Electrolytes: see "biochemistry."

Electromagnetic Radiation: also referred to as “light.”

Electromagnetic Spectrum: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.” 

Electromotive Force: also referred to as "voltage."

Electron: see "biochemistry:elements."

Electron Carriers: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Electron Microscope: see "biology research."

Electron Transport Chain: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Electron Valence Shell: see "biochemistry:elements."

Electrophysiology Study (EPS): see “medicine:cardiology.”

Electrophoresis: also referred to as “gel electrophoresis."

Elementary School: also referred to as "common elementary school."

ELEMENTS: see "biochemistry."

Elimination by Aspects Model: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

ELISA Technique: see "biology research."

Elongation Stage: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Embarrassment: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Emblem: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Embodied Cognition: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Embolus: see “biological disorders.”

Embryo: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Embryogenesis: also referred to as "embryology."

EMBRYOLOGY: see “developmental biology.”

Embryonic Development: also referred to as ‘embryology.’

Embryonic Development Stages: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Embryonic Disc: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Embryonic Stem Cells: see "human anatomy:cells."

Emergence, Emergent: see “brain functions.”

Emergence of The Common Man: see "learning:education."

Emigration: see “environment.”

EMOTION: see "brain functions."

Emotion Appraisal: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotion Wildfire: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotion Focused Coping: see "neurology."

EMOTION STATES: see "brain functions:emotion." 

EMOTION STRUCTURES: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotion Types: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotional Contagion: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotional Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Emotional Support: see "brain functions:emotion."

Emotional Tone: also referred to as "prosody."

Emotionally Competent Stimulus (EMS): see "learning: attention."

Emovere: see "neuroanatomy."

Emphatic Understanding: see “psychotherapy:humanistic therapies.”

Empirical Evidence: see "psychosocial research."

Empiricism, Empiricist: see “learning:learning theories."

Empiric Risk: see “medicine:biostatistics.

Emulsion: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Emulsification: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Encephalon: see "neuroanatomy."

Encode: pertaining to biology, see “code.”

Encoding, Encode: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Encoding Failure: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Encoding Specificity Principle: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Encounter Avoidance: see “psychological treatments:emotion tactics.”

Encounter Structuring: see “psychological treatments:emotion tactics.”

Enculturation: see "social psychology:culture.”

Endemic: see “medicine.”

Endergonic Reaction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

End Foot: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Endo: see "neuroanatomy."

Endocrine Glands: see “biological functions."

Endocrine Signaling: see “biological functions.”

Endocrine System: see “biological functions.”

Endocytosis: see "biological functions:cellular transport."

Endoderm, Endodermal: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Endogenous: see "genetics:inheritance."

Endomembrane System: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Endonuclease: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Endoplasmic Reticulum Lumen: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Endoplasmic Reticulum Signal Sequence: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Endorphins: see "neurochemistry."

Endothelium: see "human anatomy:tissues.”

End Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Energy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Energy Balance: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Energy Budget: also referred to as “energy balance.”

Energy Carriers: also referred to as "electron carriers."

Energy Intermediates: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

English as a Second Language (ESL): see "communication:language:language learning."

English Classical School: see "learning:schools."

English High School: also referred to as "english classical school."

English Language Learners: see “learning:education.”

Engram: also referred to as "memory trace."

Enhancers: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Enkephalins: see "neurochemistry."

Enteric Nervous System: see “nervous system.”

Enthalpy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Entorhinal Cortex: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Entropy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

ENVIRONMENT, Environmental: see “BIOLOGY.”

Environment Barrier: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis.”

Environmental Disorders: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Environmental Genomics: see “biological specialty areas.”

ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS: see “environment.”

Environmental Risk Factors: also referred to as “environment risks.”

Environmental Tobacco Smoke: see "environment:environmental risks.”

Envy: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

ENZYMES, Enzymatic: see "genetics:proteomics."

Enzyme Activation: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Enzyme Suppression: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Enzymatic Degradation: see “neurocommunication:synaptic regulation.”

Ependyma: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Epiblast: also referred to as “ectoderm.”

Epidemic: see “medicine.”

Epidemiology: see “biology specialty areas.”

Epidermis, Epidermal: see “human anatomy."

Epididymis: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Epigenetic(s): see "genetics."

Epigenetic Alteration: also referred to as "epigenetic."

Epigenetic Change: also referred to as "epigenetic."

Epigenetic Theory: see "developmental psychology."

EPILEPSY: see "neurological disorders."

Epimutation: also referred to as "epigenetic."

Epinephrine (neurotransmitters): see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Epinephrine (hormones): see "biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Episodic Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Epistasis: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

Epistemology: see "philosophy."

Epithalamus: see "neuroanatomy:diencephalon."

Epithelium, Epithelial: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

E-Portfolio: also referred to as "electronic portfolio.”

Epstein-Barr Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Equal Education Opportunity: see "learning:education."

Equilibrium: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Equity: see "social psychology:relationships."

Eros: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Erythrocytes: also referred to as "red blood cells."

Escalation: see “psychological treatments:emotion tactics.”

Escape Avoidance: see “neurology."

Escherichia Coli: also referred to as “E.coli.”

Escher's Images: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Esophagus: see “biological functions.”

Esters: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Estrogen: see "biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Ethanol: see "biochemistry."

Ethics: see “philosophy."

Ethmoid Bone: also referred to as “cribriform plate.”

Ethnic: see "social psychology:culture."

Ethnic Group: see "social psychology:culture."

Ethnicity: see "social psychology:culture."

Ethnocentrism: see "social psychology:culture."

Etiology: see “medicine."

Euchromatin: also referred to as “exon.”

Eukarya: also referred to as "domain eukarya."

Eukaryote, Eukaryotic: see “environment:organisms.”

Eukaryote Cell: see "human anatomy:cells."

Euphoria: see “behavioral disorders.”

Eustachian Tube: see "audition:auditory structures."

Evaluation: also referred to as "training evaluation."

Evaluation Levels: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Evaluation Plan: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Evaluation Report: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Event Monitor: see “medicine:cardiology.”

Evidence-Based Practice: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Evolution: see "developmental biology."

Evolutionary Psychology: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

Excitability Change: see “neurocommunication:excitation.” 

EXCITATION: see “neurocommunication.”

Excite, Excitatory: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”                                                                            

Excitatory Interneuron: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Excitatory Neurotransmitter: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Excitatory Signal: also referred to as “excitatory neurotransmitter.”

Excitatory Receptor: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Excitatory Synapse: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Exclamation: see "communication:language:language structure."

Executive Function: see "brain functions."

Exemplars: see "learning:association."

Exercise: see “learning:learning environment.”

Exergonic Reaction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical reaction types.”

Existentialism: see "philosophy."

Exocrine Glands: see "human anatomy."

Exocytosis: see "biological functions:cellular transport."

Exome: see “genetics:genome.”

Exon: see “genetics:genes.”

Experience: see "psychosocial research."

Experiential Learning: see "learning:learning types."

Experiment: see "psychosocial research."

Experimental Design: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Experimental Group: also referred to as “experimental sample.”

Experimental Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Experimental Sample: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Experimenting: see "social psychology:relationships.”

Expertise Currency: also referred to as “expertise power.”

Expertise Power: see "social psychology:power."

Explicit: see “brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Explicit Coding: also referred to as "explicit representation."

Explicit Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Explicit Representation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Exposure Therapy: see “psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Expressed Sequence Tag (EST): see “genetics:genome.”

Expression: also referred to as “gene expression.”

Expressive Aphasia: also referred to as “Broca’s aphasia.”

Expressive Messges: see "communication:information."

Expressivity: see “genetics:genes:gene expression."

Extension: see “genetics:genetic research.”

External Attribution: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

External-Beam Radiation Therapy: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

External Ear: also referred to as ‘outer ear.”

External Evaluation: also referred to as "summative evaluation.”

Exteroception: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Exteroceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Extinction: see "behavior:conditioning."

Extracellular: see “human anatomy:cells.”

Extracellular Fluid: see "human anatomy:cells."

Extracellular Matrix: see "human anatomy:cells."

Extracellular Space: see "human anatomy:cells."

Extrapersonal Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Extrasensory Perception (ESP): see "brain functions:perception."

Extrastriate Body Area (EBA): see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Extrastriate Cortex: also referred to as “secondary visual cortex.”

Extreme Heat: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Extreme Trauma: see "behavioral disorders.”

Extrinsic Membrane Proteins: also referred to as "integral membrane proteins."

Extrinsic Motivation: see "behavior:motivation."

Extroversion: see “developmental psychology:personality.”

Ex Vivo: see “biological research.”

Ex Vivo Gene Therapy: see “medicine.”

Eye Contact: see "communication:nonverbal communication."FADH2: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."


FDA: abbreviation for the United States Food & Drug Administration.

fMRI: see “functional magnetic resonance imaging.”

FISH: see “fluorescence in situ hybridization.”

Face: see "self awareness."

Face Cells: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Face Blindness: also referred to as "prosopagnosia.”

Face Neurons: also referred to as "face cells."

Facet(s): see "human anatomy."

Facial Expression Lip Smacking: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.” 

Facial Symmetry: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Facilitated Diffusion: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Fact: see "psychosocial research.”

Factors: also referred to as “genes.”

Fallacy of Positive Instances: see "brain functions:perception."

Fallopian Tube: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

False Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Falx Cerebelli: see “nervous system:central nervous system.” 

Falx Cerebri: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Familial: see "social psychology:relationships:family.”

Familial Dysautonomia: see “neurological disorders.”

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH): see “biological disorders.”

Familial Trait: see “genetics.”

Familiarity: see "learning:learning drivers."

Familiarity Response: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

FAMILY: see "social psychology:relationships.”

Family (taxonomy): see “environment:taxonomy."

Family Genome Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

Family Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Family Relations: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Family Sociology: see “social psychology:relationships:family.”

Family Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Farsightedness: see "neurological disorders."

Fascia: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

Fasciculation: see “neurological disorders.”

Fasciculus: also referred to as “tract.”

Fascile: also referred to as "tract."

Fasciola: see "neuroanatomy."

Fast Forward: see “neurology."

Fat(s): see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Fatigue: see “biological disorders.”

Fatty Acid(s): see "biochemistry."

Fatty Acid Hydroxylase 2: also referred to as "FADH2."

Fatty Acyl Tails: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Fear: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Fear Disorders: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Feedback: see "brain functions."

Feedback Inhibition: see "biological functions."

Feedback Loop: see "brain functions."

Feed Forward: also referred to as “feedback.”

Feelings: see "brain functions:emotion.”

Feelings Linkage: see "learning:association."

Fermentation: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Fertilization: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Fertilized Egg: also referred to as "zygote."

Fetus: see "developmental biology:embryology.

Fever: see “biological disorders.”

Fiber, Fibrous: see “human anatomy.”

Fiber (Neuron): also referred to as "axon."

Fibrillation: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Fibrocartilage: see “human anatomy.”

Fibromyalgia: see “biological disorders.”

Fibronectin: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Fight or Flight Response: see "neurological disorders:stress."

Figure-Ground Relationship: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Filling In: also referred to as "law of closure."

Filtration: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Fimbria: also referred to as “fornix.”

Finger Agnosia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Finger Spelling: see “communication:language.”

Firing: also referred to as "excitation."

Firing Rate: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

First Generation: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

First Generation Antidepressants: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

First Generation Antipsychotics: see “medicine:medications:antipsychotics.”

First Law of Thermodynamics: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

First Messenger: see "neurochemistry."

First-Person Account: also referred to as "first-person perspective."

First-Person Perspective: see "communication:language."

First Words: also referred to as "one-word stage."

Fissure: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Fissure of Sylvius: also referred to as "Sylvian Fissure."

Fixed-Interval Schedule: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Fixed-Ratio Schedule: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Flagella, Flagellum: see "human anatomy."

Flaming: see "communication."

Flashbulb Memory: also referred to as "episodic memory.”

Flask: see “biology research.”

Flat Affect: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Flavonoids: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Fleeting Memory: also referred to as "iconic memory."

Flesh-Bound Senses: also referred to as “somatic senses.”

Flinch Cells: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Flip-Flop: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Floods: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Flow Cytometry: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Flu: see “influenza.”

Fluid Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Fluidity: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Fluid Mosaic Model: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Fluorescence, Fluorescent, Fluoresce: see brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter: also referred to as “flow cytometry.”

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH): see “genetics:genetic research.”

Fluorescent Dyes: see “biology research.”

Fluoxetine: also referred to as “prozac."

Focal: see “neuroanatomy.”

Focal Adhesions: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Focal Dystonia: see “neurological disorders.”

Focal Epilepsy: see “neurological disorders:epilepsy.”

Foetus: also referred to as “fetus.”

Food Contamination: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Foot-in-the-Door Technique: see "communication:speaking."

Foramen (Foramina): see "neuroanatomy."

Foramen Magnum: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Foramen of Luschka: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Foramen of Magendie: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Foramen of Monroe: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Force Field Analysis: see “brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Force Field Diagram: see “brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Forebrain: see “developmental biology:nervous system development.”

Foreign Language: also referred to as “second language.”

Forgetting: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Forgetting Curve: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Form: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Formal Concept: see "learning:association."

Formal Operational Stage: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

Formative Evaluation: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Fornix: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Fourth Ventricle: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Fovea: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Fragile X Syndrome: see “biological disorders.”

Fragrance: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory information."

Frameshift: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Frameshift Mutation: also referred to as “frameshift.”

Fraternal Twins: also referred to as “dizygotic twins.”

Frazzled: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Free Association: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Free Energy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Free Floating Anxiety: also referred to as "generalized anxiety disorder."

Free Nerve Endings: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Free Radicals: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Frequency: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information.”

Frequency Coding: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Frequency Columns: see “brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Frequency Distribution: see "psychosocial research:statistics.”

Frequency Table: also referred to as “frequency distribution.”

Freudian Personality Structures: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Freudian Defense Mechanisms: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Freudian Psychosexual Stages: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

FRIENDSHIP: see “social psychology:relationships.”

Friendship Rules: see “social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

Friendship-Warmth Touch: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Friends With Benefits: see “social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

Frontal Cortex: also referred to as "frontal lobes."

Frontal Eye Field: see "brain functions:motion:motor structures."

FRONTAL LOBES: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Frontal Sulci: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Front End Analysis: also referred to as "cause analysis."

Frontotemporal Dementia: see “neurological disorders.”

Fructose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Frustration: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Fugue Amnesia: also referred to as "anterograde amnesia."

Function: also referred to as "process."

Functional Fixedness: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Functional Groups: see "biochemistry."

Functionalism: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): see "neuroscience research."

Fundamental Attribution Error: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Fungi: see “environment:organisms."

Fusiform: see "neuroanatomy."

Fusiform Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Fusiform Cortex: also referred to as "fusiform gyrus.”

Fusiform Facial Area (FFA): see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Fusiform Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”G1 Phase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."


G2 Phase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

GABA: see “neurocommunication:neurotransmitters.”

GABA Receptor: see “neurocommunication:synapse."

GAGs: see "glycosaminoglycans."

GDP: see "guanosine diphosphate."

GED: see "general education diploma.”

GMO: see “genetically modified organism.”

GTP: see "guanosine triphosphate."

Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies.”

Gait Apraxia: see "neurological disorders.”

Galactose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Gall Bladder: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Gamete(s): see "developmental biology:reproduction.”

Gametogenesis: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Gamma Aminobutyric Acid: also referred to as “GABA.”

Gamma Rays: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Ganglia, Ganglion: see “neuroanatomy."

Gap 1 Phase: also referred to as “G1 phase.”

Gap 2 Phase: also referred to as “G2 phase.”

Gap Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Gap Junction: also referred to as "electrical synapse.”

Gastric Cancer: also referred to as “stomach cancer.”

Gastrointestinal System: see "human anatomy."

Gastrula: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Gastrulation: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Gate-Control Theory of Pain: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Gating: see “neurochemistry:ion channels.”

Gaucher Disease: see “biological disorders.”

Gaze Tinnitus: see “neurological disorders.”

Gelatin: see "biology research."

Gel Electrophoresis: see "biology research." 

Gender: see "social psychology:culture."

Gender Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Gender Development: see "social psychology:culture."

Gender Identity: see "social psychology:culture."

Gender Role: see "social psychology:culture."

Gender Schema Theory: see "social psychology:culture."

GENE(S): see “genetics."

Gene Cloning: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

GENE EXPRESSION: see “genetics:genes.”

Gene Library: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Gene Mutations: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation."

Gene Pool: see "genetics." 

GENE REGULATION: see “genetics:genes.”

Gene Silencing: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Gene Therapy: see “medicine."

Gene Transcription: also referred to as "RNA Transcription.”

Gene Variant: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Genealogy: see “genetics:genetic research.”

General Adaptation Syndrome: see "neurological disorders:stress."

General Education Diploma (GED): see "learning:education."

General History and Physical Exam: also referred to as “medical examination.”

General Instructional Objectives: also referred to as "instructional objectives."

Generalization: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Generalized: see “biological disorders.”

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

GENERATIONS: see "genetics:inheritance."

Generative: see "communication:language."

Generativity: see “developmental psychology."

Generic Memory: also referred to as "long-term memory."

GENETIC(S): see “BIOLOGY”

Genetic Analysis: see “genetics:genetic research.”

GENETIC CODE: see “genetics.”

Genetic Code Properties: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Genetic Coding: also referred to as “coding.”

Genetic Diseases and Disorders: see “genetics.”

Genetic Diversity: also referred to as “genetic variation.”

Genetic Drift: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation."

GENETIC ENGINEERING: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Fingerprinting: also referred to as “DNA fingerprinting."

Genetic Heterogeneity: see "genetics:complex inheritance.”

Genetic Hybridization: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Library: also referred to as “gene library.”

Genetic Linkage: see “genetics:inheritance:complex inheritance.”

Genetic Mapping: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Marker: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Material: see “genetics."

Genetic Mosaic: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Genetic Predisposition: also referred to as “genetic susceptibility.”

GENETIC RESEARCH: see “genetics.”

Genetic Risk: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Genetic Screening: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Genetic Sequence: also referred to as “DNA sequence.”

Genetic Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Staining and Labeling: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Susceptibility: see “genetics.”

GENETIC TESTING: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genetic Testing Registry: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Genetic Transfer: see "genetics."

Genetic Translation: also referred to as "RNA translation.”

Genetic Variance: also referred to as “genetic variation.”

GENETIC VARIATION: see “genetics:genes.”

Genetic Vector: also referred to as “vector.”

Genetically Engineered Foods: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Genetically Modified Crops: see “environment:organisms.”

Genetically Modified Organism: see “environment:organisms.”

Genital Herpes: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

GENOME, Genomic: see "genetics."

Genome Assembly: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genome Engineering: also referred to as “genetic engineering.”

Genome Library: also referred to as “genomic library.”

GENOME NONCODING REGIONS: see “genetics."

Genome Sequence: see “genetics:genome."

Genome Sequencing: also referred to as “DNA sequencing.”

Genome Size: see “genetics:genome."

Genome Wide Association Study: see “genetics:genetic research."

Genomics: see “genetics:genome."

Genomic Imprinting: see “genetics:chromosomes.”

Genomic Library: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Genotype, Genotypic: see “genetics."

Genotyping: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Genu: see "human anatomy."

Genuineness: see “psychotherapy: humanistic therapies.”

Genus, Genera: see “environment:taxonomy.”

Germ: see “environment:organisms.”

Germ Cell: also referred to as “gamete.”

Germ Layer: also referred to as "primary germ layer.”

German Measles: also referred to as “rubella virus.”

Germinal Period: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Gestalt Principals of Organization: also referred to as “gestalt theory.”

Gestalt Theory: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Gestalt Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: see "biological disorders:diabetes.”

Gestures, Gesticulation: see “communication:language:nonverbal communication.”

Giant Axonal Neuropathy: see "neurological disorders.”

Gifted and Talented: also referred to as “gifted student.”

Gifted Student: see “learning:education."

GI Tract: also referred to as “alimentary canal.”

Given: also referred to as "condition."

Gland, Glandular: see "human anatomy."

Gleevec: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

GLIA: see “nervous system."

Glial Cells: also referred to as “glia.”

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP): see “nervous system:glia.”

Glial Trails: see “nervous system:glia.”

Gliogenesis: also referred to as "neurogenesis."

Globular: see “human anatomy."

Globus Pallidus: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Glucose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Glutamate: see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Glutamate Receptor: see “neurocommunication:synapse."

Glutamic Acid: see “biochemistry.”

Glycerine: also referred to as "glycerol."

Glycerol: see "biochemistry."

Glycine: see “biochemistry.”

Glycocalyx: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Glycogen: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Glycolipid: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Glycolysis: see "biological functions:respiration."

Glycosylation: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Glycoprotein: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Goal: see "learning:instructional design:training design."

Goal Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Goal Orientation: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

God Helmet: see "neuroscience research."

Gold: see "biochemistry:elements."

Golgi Apparatus: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Gonads: see “developmental biology:reproduction.”

Grade School: also referred to as “primary school.”

Gradient: see "biochemistry."

Graduated Cylinder: see "biology research.”

Graft: see “medicine.”

Grain Alcohol: also referred to as “ethanol.”

Grammar: see "communication:language:language learning."

Grammar School: also referred to as "latin grammar school.”

Grand Mal Seizure: see “neurological disorders.”

Granule Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Grasp Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Grasping Precision Grip: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Grasping Whole Hand Grip: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Gratitude: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Gray Matter, Grey Matter: see "neuroanatomy."

Great Apes: see “environment:organisms."

Great Longitudinal Fissure: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.” 

Grid Cells: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Grief: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

GROUP: see “social psychology:relationships.”

Group Behavior: see “social psychology:relationships:group.”

Group Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Groupthink: see “social psychology:relationships:group.”

Growth: see "developmental biology."

Growth and Development: also referred to as “developmental biology.”

GROWTH FACTORS: see “neurochemistry."

Growth Hormone: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones.”

Guanine: see “biochemistry."

Guanosine Diphosphate (GTP): see “biochemistry.”

Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP): see “biochemistry.”

Guiding Stage: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Guilt: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Gustation, Gustatory: see "brain functions."

Gyrus, Gyri: see "neuroanatomy."


H: chemical symbol for “hydrogen"

H1N1: also referred to as “avian flu virus.”

H5N1: also referred to as “swine flu virus.”

HERV: see "human endogenous retrovirus."

HIV: see “human immunodeficiency virus”

Habituation: see "learning:learning types."

Halo Effect: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Hallucinations: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Hallucinogens: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Hammer: also referred to as "malleus."

Haploid Cell: see "human anatomy:cells."

Haplotype: see “genetics:inheritance."

Happiness: also referred to as “joy.”

Happiness Neurotransmitter: also referred to as "serotonin."

Hapsis: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Haptic Receptor: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Haptics: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Hard Education Technologies: see "learning:instructional design.”

Hardening of the Arteries: also referred to as “atherosclerosis.”

Hassles: also referred to as “microstressors."

Hate: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

Health Anxiety: also referred to as "hypochondria."

Health Phobia: also referred to as "hypochondria."

Health Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Hearing: also referred to as "sound perception."

Hearing Perception: also referred to as "sound perception."

Heart: see "human anatomy:organs.”

Heart Attack: also referred to as "myocardial infarction."

Heart Beat: see "human anatomy:organs."

Heart Block: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Heart Chambers: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Heart Diagnostics: see “medicine:cardiology.”

Heart Disease: also referred to as “cardiovascular disease.”

Heart Electrical System: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Heart Failure: also referred to as "cardiomyopathy."

Heart Rate: see "human anatomy:organs."

Heart Rhythm: see "human anatomy:organs."

Heart Valves: see "human anatomy:organs."

Hebbian Learning: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Hebbian Link: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Helicase: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Helix, Helical: see “human anatomy."

Helper T-Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Hemi: see "neuroanatomy."

Hemiballismus: see "neurological disorders."

Hemiinattention: also referred to as “hemispatial neglect.”

Hemineglect: also referred to as “hemispatial neglect.”

Hemispatial Neglect: see "neurological disorders."

Hemisphere(s): also referred to as “cerebral hemispheres.”

Hemispherectomy: see "neurology."

Hemoglobin: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Hemophilia: see “biological disorders.”

Hemorrhage: see "biological disorders."

Hemorrhagic Stoke: see “neurological disorders:stroke.”

Hepatitis A Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Hepatitis B Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Herbartian Teaching Method: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Heredity, Hereditary: also referred to as "inheritance."

Heritability: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Heroin: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Herpes Family Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Herpes Simplex Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Herpes Zoster: also referred to as “shingles.”

Heterogenetic Cortex: also referred to as "allocortex."

Heteromodal Association Cortex: also referred to as "multimodal association cortex.”

Heteroplasmic: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

Heterotypic: see "neuroanatomy."

Heterozygous, Heterozygote: see "genetics:genes."

Heuristics: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Hexose Sugars: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Hidden Curriculum: see "learning:education."

Hierarchical Structure: also referred to as “nested structure.”

High-Contact Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

High-Context Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

High Road: see "brain functions:cognition."

High School: also referred to as "english classical school."

Hilum: also referred to as "hilus."

Hilus:  see "brain functions:memory:memory structures."

Hindbrain: see “developmental biology:nervous system development.”

Hindsight Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Hippocampal Formation: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Hippocampal Slice: see "neuroscience research."

Hippocampus, Hippocampal: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

HIS-Purkinje Network: see "human anatomy:organs."

Histone Acetylation: also referred to as “acetylation.”

Histones: see “genetics:chromosomes.”

Histology: see “biological specialty areas.”

History and Physical Exam: also referred to as “medical examination.”

History of Present Illness: see "medicine:medical examination.”

Holoendemic: see “medicine.”

Holter Monitor: see “medicine:cardiology.”

Homeostasis, Homeostatic: see "biological functions."

Homeostatic Sleep Drive: see "biological functions."

Home School: see "learning:schools."

Homologous: see "genetics."

Homologous Chromosomes: see "genetics."

Homologue: see "genetics."

Homotypic: see "biochemistry."

Homozygous, Homozygote: see "genetics:genes."

Homunculus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Honesty: see "communication:speaking."

Hope: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Horizontal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Horizontal Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Horizontal Cells of Cajal: also referred to as "horizontal cells." 

Horizontal Gene Transfer: see "genetics."

HORMONES: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Horn: see "human anatomy."

Horn Effect: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Horse's Tail: also referred to as "caudal equina.”

Host: see “environment:organisms.”

Host Cell: see “human anatomy:cells.” 

Hostility: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

Hot Spot: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Hot Spot Mutation Region: also referred to as “hot spot.”

How Circuit: also referred to as the "how pathway."

How Pathway: see "brain functions:vision:visual pathways.”

Hue: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

HUMAN ANATOMY: see “BIOLOGY”

Human Chemosignals: also referred to as "pheromones."

Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV): see “biological disorders:retrovirus.”

Human Factors Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Human Genome: see “genetics:genome.”

Human Genome Project: see “genetics:genome.”

Human Genome Sequence: also referred to as “human genome.”

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Humanistic Psychology: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

HUMANISTIC THERAPIES: see “psychotherapy.”

Humor: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Humoral Immune Response: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Huntington’s Disease: see "neurological disorders."

Hyaluronic Acid: see "biochemistry."

Hybrid: see “genetics:inheritance."

Hybridization: see “genetics:genetic research."

Hydrated: see "biochemistry."

Hydrocarbons: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Hydrogen (H): see “biochemistry:elements.”

Hydrogen Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Hydrolysis, Hydrolytic: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Hydrophilic: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Hydrophobic: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Hydroxyl Group: see “biochemistry.”

Hyper: see “neuroanatomy.”

Hyperendemic: see “medicine.”

Hyperkinesis: also referred to as “hyperkinetic movement disorder.”

Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder: see "neurological disorders."

Hyperopia: also referred to as "farsightedness."chemistry

Hyperpolarization, Hyperpolarize: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Hypersensitivity: also referred to as “allergy.”

Hypertonic: see "biological functions:cellular transport.”

Hyphenated Repeats: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Hypo: see “neuroanatomy."

Hypoblast: also referred to as “endoderm.”

Hypochondria: see “behavioral disorders.”

Hypochondriasis: also referred to as "hypochondria."

Hypokinetic Movement Disorder: see "neurological disorders."

Hypophysis: also referred to as “pituitary gland.”

Hypothalamic Neurosecretory Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Hypothalamic Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Hypothalamus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Hypothesis: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Hypothetical Construct: see "psychosocial research."

Hypotonic: see "biochemistry."


ICD: see "implanted cardioverter defibrillator."

IGF: see “insulin-like growth factors.”

iPS: see “induced pluripotent stem cells.”

ISD: see "instructional design.”

Iconic Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

Id: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Idea: see "brain functions:cognition."

Ideational Apraxia: see “neurological disorders.”

Identical Twins: also referred to as “monozygotic twins.”

Identification: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Identity: also referred to as “self-concept.”

Ideogram: also referred to as “chromosome ideogram.”

Ideomotor Effect: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Idiopathic: see “biological disorders.”

Idiopathic Epilepsy: see “neurological disorders:epilepsy.”

Idiosyncratic: see "self awareness."

I-It: see “communication:speaking."

I Language: see "communication:language."

Illusions: also referred to as "perceptual illusions."

Illustrator: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Imagination: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Imagination Inflation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Imitate the Majority: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Imitate the Successful: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Immediacy: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Immediate Memory: also referred to as "short-term memory."

Immersion: see "communication:language:language learning.”

Immigrant: see “environment.”

Immigration: see “environment.”

Immune Response: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Immune System: see “biological functions:immunity.”

IMMUNITY: see “biological functions.”

Immunization: see “medicine.”

Immunoassay: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Immunodeficiency: see “biological disorders.”

Immunoglobin: also referred to as “antibody.”

Immunology: see “biology specialty areas.”

Immunosuppressant: see “medicine:medications.”

Immunotherapy: see “medicine.”

Immunotoxin: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD): see “medicine:cardiology."

Implementation: also referred to as "training implementation."

Implicit: see “brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Implicit Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Implicit Representation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Impulse: also referred to as "action potential."

Inborn Errors of Metabolism: see “biological disorders.”

Incandescence, Incandescent: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Incentive Barrier: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis.""

Incentive Theories: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Incidence: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Incomplete Dominance: also referred to as “incompletely dominant alleles."

Incompletely Dominant Allele: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Incompletely Penetrant: see “genetics:genes:gene expression.”

Incubation: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Incus: see "audition:auditory structures."

Independent Variable: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Indicate: see "psychosocial research."

Indicator: see "psychosocial research."

Indicator Behavior: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Indicator Performance: also referred to as "indicator behavior."

Indicator Reagents: also referred to as "reagents."

Indicators: see “biology research.”

Indirect Inhibition: also referred to as "allosteric inhibition."

Indirect Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies.”

Individualized Medicine: also referred to as “personalized medicine.”

Individualistic Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

Induced Fit: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Induced Motion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS): see “human anatomy:cells.”

Inducers: also referred to as "eukaryote activators."

Inducible Enzymes: also referred to as "eukaryote activators."

Induction: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Industrial and Organizational Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Infant: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Infant-Directed Speech: also referred to as "motherease."

INFECTION, INFECTIOUS: see "biological disorders.”

Inference: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Inferior: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain.”

Inferior Colliculus: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Inferior Frontal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Inferior Frontal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Inferior Parietal Cortex: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Inferior Parietal Lobule: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Inferior Preoccipital Notch: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Inferior Temporal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Inferior Temporal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Inferiority Complex: see "behavioral disorders."

Infiltrating Cancer: also referred to as “invasion.”

Infix: see "communication:language:language structure." 

Inflammation: see "biological disorders."

Influenza: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Influenza Virus Type A: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

INFORMATION: see “communication.”

Information Graphics: also referred to as “data graphics.”

Information Processing Model: see “developmental psychology.”

Informative Influence: see "behavior."

Ingroup: see “social psychology:relationships:group.”

Ingroup Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias.”

Injury: see “biological disorders.”

INHERITANCE: see "genetics."

Inheritance Factors: also referred to as "inheritance."

Inheritance Patterns: also referred to as “inheritance."

INHIBITION: see “neurocommunication.”

Inhibit, Inhibitory: see “neurocommunication.”

Inhibitor: see “neurocommunication:inhibition.”

Inhibitory Interneuron: see “neurocommunication:inhibition.”

Inhibitory Neurotransmitter: see “neurocommunication:inhibition.”

Inhibitory Receptor: see “neurocommunication:inhibition.”

Inhibitory Signal: also referred to as  “inhibitory neurotransmitter.”

Inhibitory Synapse: see “neurocommunication:inhibition.”

Initiating: see "social psychology:relationships."

Initiation Sequence: also referred to as "start codon."

Initiation Stage: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Initiative: see “behavior."

Injury: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Innate Immunity: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Inner Ear: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

Input: see “neurocommunication.” 

Inquiry Arousal: see "learning:attention."

Inquiry Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies.”

Insertion: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation."

Insight: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Insight Therapies: also referred to as "cognitive therapies.”

In Silico: see "biology research.”

In Situ: see "biology research.”

In Situ Hybridization: see "biology research."

Insoluble: see “biochemistry.”

Insomnia: see "behavioral disorders.”

Integrins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Instinct: see "behavior."

Instinct Theories: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories.”

Instruction: also referred to as “education.”

Instructional Condition: see "learning:instructional design:training design."

Instructional Criteria: see "learning:instructional design:training design."

Instructional Delivery: also referred to as "implementation."

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (ISD): see "learning."

Instructional Design Objectives: also referred to as "instructional objectives."

Instructional Design System: also referred to as "instructional design."

Instructional Objectives: see "learning:instructional design:training design."

Instructional Plan: also referred to as "product."

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES: see "learning."

Instructional Technology: see "learning:instructional design."

Instructional Theory: also referred to as "learning theory."

Instructional Timeline: see "learning:instructional design:training design.”

Instructor: also referred to as “teacher.”

Instructor-Led Courses and Workshops: see "learning:instructional design:training implementation."

Instrumental Conditioning: also referred to as "operant conditioning."

Insula: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures.”

Insular Cortex: also referred to as "insula."

Insulin: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Integral Membrane Proteins: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Integrating: see "social psychology:relationships."

Integration: see "learning:education."

Integrative Stage: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Integrins: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

INTELLIGENCE: see "brain functions:cognition."

Intelligence Quotient (IQ): see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Intelligence Tests: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Intelligence Types: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Intensifying: see "social psychology:relationships."

Intensity: see "brain functions."

Interactive Communication Model: see "communication.”

Interactive Dualism: also referred to as “dualism."

Intercellular Junction: see “biological functions:cellular transport.”

Intercellular Transport: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Intercultural Competence: see "social psychology:culture."

Interference Theory: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Interferons: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Interhemispheric Fissure: also referred to as "great longitudinal fissure.”

Interior Frontal Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Interjection: see "communication:language:language structure.”

Interleukins: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Intermediate Filaments: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Internal Attribution: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Internal Ear: also referred to as “inner ear.”

Internal Medullary Lamina: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Internal Nose: also referred to as “nasal cavity.”

Internal Radiation: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Internet Based Training: also referred to as "web based training."

Interneurons: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Internode: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development."

Interoception: see "brain functions:somatic sensation." 

Interoceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Interpersonal Attraction: see "social psychology:friendship."

Interpersonal Communication: see “communication.”

Interpersonal Communication Competence: also referred to as “communication competence.”

Interpersonal Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Interphase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division.”

Interposition: also referred to as “overlap.”

Interruptions: see “learning:attention."

Interspersed Repeat Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Intervertebral Disc: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column.”

Intestine: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Intimacy: see “social psychology:relationships.”

Intimate Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Intonation: see "communication:language:language learning."

Intracardiac Electrophysiology Study: also referred to as "electrophysiology study.”

Intracellular: see “human anatomy:cells.”

Intracellular Fluid: also referred to as “cytoplasm.”

Intracranial Self-Stimulation: see "neuroanatomy:limbic system."

Intraparietal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Intrapersonal Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Intrinsic: see "neuroanatomy."

Intrinsic Motivation: see "behavior:motivation."

Intron: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Introspection: see "self awareness."

Introversion: see “developmental psychology:personality.”

Intuition: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Intuition Cells: also referred to as “von economo neurons.”

Invagination: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Invariant: see “brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Invariant Representation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Invasion, Invasive Cancer: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Inversion: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Invertebrate: see “environment:organisms."

Inverted Repeat Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Investment Phase of Glycolysis: see "biological functions:respiration.”

In Vitro: see "biology research."

In Vivo: see "biology research.”

In Vivo Gene Therapy: see “medicine.”

Ion(s): see “biochemistry.”

Ion Channels: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Ion Electrochemical Gradient: also referred to as "electrochemical gradient."

Ionic Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Ionic Hypothesis: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Ionizing Radiation: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Ionotropic Receptor: see “neurocommunication:synapse."

Ipsilateral: see "neuroanatomy."

Irrational Thought: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.” 

Ischemic Stroke: see “neurological disorders:stroke.”

Island of Reil: also referred to as "insula."

Isoforms: see "biochemistry:proteins."

Isocortex: also referred to as "neocortex.”

Isolation: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Isomers: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Isotonic: see "biochemistry.”

Isotope: see "biochemistry:elements."

Isthmus: see “human anatomy.”

I-Thou: see "social psychology:relationships.”Jacobs Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”


Jealousy: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Jigsaw Classroom Technique: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Job Aid: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Job Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Joint: see "human anatomy."

Joy: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types.”

Jumping Genes: also referred to as “transposable elements.”

Jung's Theory: see "behavior:behavioral theories.”

Junior High School: also referred to as "middle school."

Junk DNA: also referred to as “genome noncoding regions."

Just World Hypothesis: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Juxtallocortex: also referred to as "mesocortex.”


K: chemical symbol for "potassium."

K12: see “learning:education.”

Kantianism: see "philosophy."

Karyotyping, Karyotype: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Ketoacidosis: see “biological disorders:diabetes.”

Key Concept Linkage: see "learning:association."

Kidney: see "human anatomy:organs."

Kinase: see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Kinesics: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Kinesthetic Imagery: also referred to as “motor imagery.”

Kinesthetic Perception: see "brain functions:perception."

Kinetic Energy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Kinetochore: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Kingdom: see “environment:taxonomy."

Kingdom Animalia: see “environment:taxonomy."

Kingdom Fungi: see “environment:taxonomy."

Kingdom Plantae: see “environment:taxonomy."

Kingdom Protista: see “environment:taxonomy."

Klinefelter Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Knockouts: see “genetics:genetic research."

Knowledge: see "learning."LASIK: see “neurology."


LGN: see “lateral geniculate nucleus.”

LSD: see "lysergic acid diethylamide."

LTD: see “long-term depression.”

LTP: see “long-term potentiation.”

LacA: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

LacY: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

LacZ: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Lab: also referred to as “laboratory.”

Lab School: see “learning:schools.”

Laboratory: see “biology research.”

Laboratory Chemicals: see “biology research.”

Laboratory Director: see “biology research.”

Laboratory Glassware: see “biology research.”

Labyrinth Vestibule: also referred to as “vestibular apparatus.”

Lac Operon: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Lac Regulation in E. Coli: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Lactic Acid, Lactate: see "biochemistry."

Lactose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Lady Macbeth Effect: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Lagging Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Laminar Position: see "neuroanatomy."

Laminin: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

LANGUAGE: see "communication."

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: see "communication:language."

LANGUAGE LEARNING: see "communication:language."

Language Processes: see “communication:language."

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE: see "communication:language."

Lanugo: see "behavioral disorders.”

Large Intestine: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Large Subunit: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Larynx: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Laser: see “medicine.”

Latent Learning: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

Lateral: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Lateral Aperture: also referred to as “foramen of Luschka.”

Lateral Fissure: also referred to as "sylvian fissure."

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN): see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Lateral Lemniscus: see “nervous system."

Lateral Nuclear Group: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Lateral Occipital Gyrus: also referred to as "occipital gyrus."

Lateral Occipitotemporal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Lateral Olfactory Striae: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory pathways."

Lateral Reticulospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Lateral Sulcus: also referred to as "sylvian fissure."

Lateral Ventricles: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Latin Grammar School: see "learning:schools."

Law: see "psychosocial research."

Law of Closure: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Law of Conservation of Energy: also referred to as "first law of thermodynamics."

Law of Good Continuation: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Law of Good Figure: also referred to as "law of simplicity."

Law of Independent Assortment: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Law of Least Effort: see "brain functions:problem solving:decision strategies."

Law of Pragnanz: also referred to as "law of simplicity."

Law of Proximity: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Law of Segregation: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Law of Similarity: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Law of Simplicity: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Law of Small Numbers: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Layered Gray Matter: see “neuroanatomy.”

Layers: also referred to as “cerebral cortex layers.”

Leading Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Learnability: see "psychosocial research."

Learned Helplessness: see “behavioral disorders.”

Learner’s Preparation: see “learning:learning environment.”

LEARNING: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Learning Drivers: see "learning."

Learning Environment: see "learning."

Learning Requirements: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Learning Reward: see "learning:learning drivers."

Learning Theories: see "learning."

Learning Types: see "learning."

Leber Congenital Amaurosis: see “neurological disorder."

Left Angular Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.” 

Left Atrium: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Left Hemisphere: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Left Supramarginal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Left Temporal Lobe: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Left Ventricle: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Lemniscus: see “nervous system.”

Lenticular Nucleus: see “neuroanatomy:basil ganglia.”

Lentiform Nucleus: also referred to as the “lenticular nucleus.”

Lesion: see "biological disorders."

Lethal Alleles: see “genetics:genes.”

Lethargy, Lethargic: see “biological disorders.”

Leukemia: see "biological disorders:cancer."

Leukocytes: also referred to as "white blood cells."

Leukotrienes: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids."

Liberal Arts: see "learning:education."

Libido: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Licensed Professional Counselor: see “psychology specialty areas.”

Lifespan Psychology: also referred to as "developmental psychology.”

Lifetime Risk: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Ligament: see “human anatomy.”

Ligands: also referred to as “messenger molecules.”

Ligand-Gated Ion Channel: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Ligase: also referred to as “DNA ligase.”

Light: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Light Absorption: see brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Lignins: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Liking: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Limbic Association Cortex: also referred to as "limbic lobe cortex."

Limbic Functions: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Limbic Lobe: also referred to as the "limbic system."

Limbic Lobe Cortex: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Limbic Lobe Structures: also referred to as the "limbic system."

Limbic Nuclei: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Limbic Pathways: see "neuroanatomy:limbic system."

Limbic Structures: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

LIMBIC SYSTEM: see “neuroanatomy.”

Limbus: see "neuroanatomy."

Line: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Lineage: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

Linear Communication Model: see "communication.”

Linear Perspective: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Linguistic Competence: also referred to as “communication competence."

Linguistic Determinism: see "communication:language."

Linguistic Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: see "communication:language."

Linguistics, Linguistic: see "communication:language:language learning."

Lingula: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:occipital lobes.”

Linkage: also referred to as "association."

Linkage Maps: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Linking: see "learning:association."

Lipase: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Lipid Anchors: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

LIPIDS: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Lipoproteins: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Lip Smacking: see "brain functions:motion."

LISTENING: see "communication.”

Listening Strategies: see "communication:listening."

Liter: see "biology research.”

Literature Review: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Lithium: see “medicine:medications."

Liver: see "human anatomy:organs."

Lobe, Lobular: see "neuroanatomy."

Lobule: see "neuroanatomy."

Local Circuit Cells: also referred to as "interneurons."

Local Signal: also referred to as "synaptic potential."

Localization: see "brain functions.”

Locomotion: see “brain functions:motion.”

Locus, Loci: see “genetics:chromosomes."

Logarithm: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Logic: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Loin: see "human anatomy."

Loneliness: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Long Association Fibers: see “nervous system.”

Longitudinal Cerebral Fissure: also referred to as "great longitudinal fissure.”

Longitudinal Fissure: also referred to as "great longitudinal fissure.”

Long-QT Syndrome: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Long-Term Depression (LTD): see “brain functions:memory.”

Long-Term Facilitation: also referred to as "long-term sensitization."

Long-Term Habituation: see “brain functions:memory.”

Long-Term Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): see “brain functions:memory.”

Long-Term Sensitization: see “brain functions:memory.”

Looking Glass Self: see "self awareness."

Looking Glass Syndrome: also referred to as “mirror agnosia.”

Loudness: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information."

Love: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Love-Intimacy Touch: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Lowball Technique: see “communication:speaking."

Low-Contact Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

Low-Context Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

Lower Motor Neuron: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Low Road: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Loyalty Strategy: see "social psychology:relationships."

Lugol's Iodine: see "biology research.”

Lugol’s Solution: also referred to as “lugol’s iodine.”

Lumbar: see "biology structures."

Lumbar Cistern: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Lumbar Vertebrae: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Lumen: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Luminance: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Luminescence, Luminescent: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Lungs: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Lung Cancer: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Lupus: see “biological disorders.”

Lying: see "nonverbal communication."

Lymph: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Lymph Nodes: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Lymph System: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Lymph Vessels: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Lymphocytes: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Lymphoma: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Lysosome: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."M1: also referred to as "primary motor cortex.”


M2: also referred to as "secondary motor cortex.”

MEG: see "magnetocephalography."

MRF: see “mesencephalic reticular formation.”

MRI: see “magnetic resonance imaging.”

mRNA: see "messenger RNA.”

MT: also referred to as "middle temporal area.”

Macrominerals: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Macromolecules: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Macrophage: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Magnet School: see "learning:schools."

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): see "neuroscience research."

Magnetocephalography (MEG): see "neuroscience research."

Magnification: see "biology research."

Magnocellular Cells: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Magnocellular Division: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Main Brain: also referred to as "cerebrum."

Maintenance Rehearsal: see "learning:repetition."

Major Depression: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Major Depressive Disorder: also referred to as "major depression."

Major Histocompatibility Complex: see “genetics:genes.”

Major Seizure: also referred to as "grand mal seizure."

Maladaptive: see “behavioral disorders.”

Maladaptive Behavior: see “behavioral disorders.”

Malignant: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Malleus: see "audition:auditory structures."

Maltose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Mammals: see “environment:organisms.”

Mammalian Brain: also referred to as the “limbic system.”

Mammillary Bodies: see “diencephalon.”

Mania: see "behavioral disorders."

Manic Episode: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Manic Depression: also referred to as "bipolar disorder."

Mantle: see "human anatomy."

MAO Inhibitors: also referred to as “monoamine oxidase inhibitor.”

Marfan Syndrome: see “biological disorders."

Marginal Cingulate Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Marijuana: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Marital Therapy: also referred to as "couples therapy.”

Marker: also referred to as “genetic marker.”

Mask, Masking: see "self awareness."

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Mass, Atomic Mass: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Master’s Degree: see “learning:education;”

Matching Hypothesis: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Materialism: also referred to as "naturalism."

Maternity Blues: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Mathematical Units: see “neuroscience units.”

Matrix Text: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Matter: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Mature mRNA: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA.”

M-Cell: also referred to as "magnocellular cells.”

Mean: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Meaning: see "learning:attention."

Meaningful: see "learning:attention."

Mean Square: also referred to as “variance.”

Meatus: see “human anatomy." 

Mechanoreceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Mechanosensitive Channel: also referred to as "non-gated channel.”

Media: see “communication.”

Media (biology): also referred to as “cultural media.”

Medial, Median: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Medial Aperture: also referred to as “foramen of Magendie.”

Medial Aspect: also referred to as “medial.”

Medial Forebrain Bundle: see "neuroanatomy:limbic system."

Medial Frontal Gyrus: also referred to as "superior frontal gyrus."

Medial Lemniscus: see “nervous system."

Medial Longitudinal Fissure: also referred to as “great longitudinal fissure."

Medial Nuclear Group: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Medial Occipitotemporal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Medial Olfactory Striae: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory pathways."

Medial Reticulospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Medial Surface Sulci: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Medial Vestibulospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Median (statistics): see "psychosocial research:statistics."

MEDICAL EXAMINATION: see “medicine.”

Medical Model of Abnormal Behavior: see “behavioral disorders.”

Medical Terms: see “medicine."

MEDICATIONS: see “medicine."

MEDICINE: see “BIOLOGY.”

Medieval Universities: see "learning:schools."

Meditation: see "brain functions:cognition."

Medulla Oblongata: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Meiosis I: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Meiosis II: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Meiotic Cell Division: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Meissner’s Corpuscles: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors.”

Melanin: see “biochemistry:molecules.”

Melatonin: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones.”

Melody: see “brain functions:audition.”

Membrane: also referred to as "cell membrane."

Membrane Proteins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Memory: see “brain functions.”  

Memory Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Memory Duration: see “brain functions:memory.”

Memory Evolution: see "developmental biology.”

Memory Loss: see “amnesia.”

Memory Processes: see “brain functions:memory.”

Memory Pathways: see “brain functions:memory.”

Memory Prediction Framework: also referred to as "predicting."

Memory Structures: see “brain functions:memory.”

Memory Trace: see “brain functions:memory.”

Memory Types: see “brain functions:memory.”

Menarche: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Mendelian Disorders: see “biological disorders."

MENDELIAN INHERITANCE: see “genetics:inheritance."

Meninges, Meningeal: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Meningeal Dura Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Meningitis: see "biological disorders.”

Menstruation: see “developmental biology:reproduction.”

Mental Age: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Mental Bracketing: see "communication:speaking."

Mental Disorders: also referred to as "behavioral disorders."

Mental Fitness: also referred to as “brain fitness.”

Mental Image: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Mental Set: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Mental Status Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam."

Mental Training or Exercise: see “brain fitness.”

Mere Exposure Effect: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

Mescaline: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Mesencephalic Reticular Formation (MRF): see “midbrain.”

Mesencephalon: also referred to as "midbrain."

Meso: see “neuroanatomy."

Mesoblast: also referred to as “mesoderm.”

Mesocortex: see "neuroanatomy."

Mesoderm, Mesodermal: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Mesolimbic Dopamine System: see "neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Message: also referred to as "signal."

Messenger Molecules: see “neurochemistry.”

Messenger Neurons: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Messenger RNA: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA.”

Messengers: also referred to as “messenger molecules.”

Meta-Analysis: see "psychosocial research."

Metabolic Pathway: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism.”

Metabolic Processes: also referred to as “metabolism.”

METABOLISM, Metabolic: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Metabotropic Receptor: see “neurocommunication:synapse."

Metacognition: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Meta-Communication: see "communication."

Metagenome: see “genetics:genome."

Metagenomics: see “genetics:genome."

Metals: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Metaphase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Metaphor: see "communication:language."

Metaphysics: see “philosophy."

Metastasis, Metastases: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Metcalfe’s Law: see “social psychology.”

Metencephalon: see “neuroanatomy.”

Meter: see “neuroscience research.”

Methanococcus jannaschii: see “environment:organisms.”

Methylation: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Methyl Groups: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Methylphenidate: see “medicine:medications.”

M. genitalium: see “environment:organisms.”

Microbes: also referred to as “microorganisms.”

Microbiome: see “environment.”

Microcentrofuge: see “biology research.”

Microelectrodes: see "neuroscience research."

Microfilaments: also referred to as "actin filaments."

Microglia: see “nervous system:glia."

Microliter: see "biology research.”

Micromapping: see "neuroscience research."

Micrometer: see “neuroscience research.”

Micron: also referred to as "micrometer.”

Microorganisms: see “environment:organisms.”

MicroRNA: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA.”

Microsatellite(s): also referred to as “microsatellite repeats."

Microsatellite Repeats: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Microscope: see "biology research."

Microsecond: see “neuroscience research.”

Microstressor(s): see "neurological disorders:stress."

Microtubules: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Midbrain: see “developmental biology:nervous system development.”

Middle Ear: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

Middle Frontal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Middle School: see "learning:schools."

Middle Temporal Area (MT): see “brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Middle Temporal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Middle Temporal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Midget Neurons: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Midline Nuclei: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Midsagittal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain.”

Migraine: see “biological disorders.”

Migration: see “environment.”

Miller, Steve: see “Learning Glossaries Timeline:1990’s.” 

Millimeter: see "neuroscience research.”

Milliliter: see "biology research.”

Milliseconds: see “neuroscience research.” 

Millivolts: see “neuroscience research.”  

Mind: see "brain functions."

Mind Brain and Education: also referred to as "mind, brain, and education science."

Mind Brain and Education Science: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Mineral Radiation: see “environment:environmental risks."

Minerals: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Minisatellite(s): also referred to as “minisatellite repeats."

Minisatellite Repeats: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Mirror: see “mirror neurons.”

Mirror Agnosia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Mirror Box: also referred to as "virtual reality box.”

Mirror Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.” 

Mirror Writing: reading and writing from right to left. (Doidge, 29)

Misinformation Effect: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Missense Mutation: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Misunderstanding: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Mitchell, Silas Weir: see “Learning Glossaries Timeline:1870’s.”

Mitochondria: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Mitochondrial Inheritance: see “genetics:inheritance:complex inheritance.”

Mitochondrial Proteins: see "biochemistry:proteins."

Mitosis: also referred to as "mitotic cell division."

Mitotic Cell Division: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Mitral Regurgitation: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Mitral Valve: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Mixed Messages: see "communication:information.”

Mixed Metaphor: see "communication:language."

Mixed-Status Relationship: see "social psychology:relationships."

Mneme: see "memory."

Mnemonic: see "learning:learning drivers."

Modality: see "neuroanatomy."

Mode: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Modes of Inheritance: also referred to as "inheritance."

Model(s): see "learning:instructional design:training development."

Model-Centered Learning: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Model School: also referred to as "lab school."

Modesty Bias: also referred to as "self-effacing bias."

Modifier Gene: see "genetics:genes."

Modular: see "neuroanatomy.”

Module: see "neuroanatomy.”

Modulation, Modulate: see "neurochemistry."

Molecular Biology: see "biology specialty areas."

Molecular Chaperones: also referred to as "chaperone proteins.”

Molecular Cloning: also referred to as “gene cloning.”

Molecular Movement: see "biochemistry."

Molecular Problem of Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Molecular Structure: see “biochemistry:molecules.”

MOLECULES, Molecular: see "biochemistry."

Money Priming: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

Monitorial School: see "learning:schools."

Monoamine: see “biochemistry.”

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Monochronic Time: see "social psychology:culture."

Monocular: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Monogenetic Inheritance: also referred to as "mendelian inheritance."

Monohybrid Cross: see “genetics:genetic research."

Monomer: see “biochemistry:molecules."

Mononucleosis: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Monosaccharides: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Monosomies: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Monozygotic Twins (MZ Twins): see “genetics:inheritance.” 

Monroe’s Holes: also referred to as “foramen of Monroe.”

Mood: see "brain functions:emotion."

Mood Congruence: see "learning:learning drivers."

Mood Congruency: also referred to as "mood congruence."

MOOD DISORDERS: see "behavioral disorders."

Mood Triggers: see "brain functions:emotion."

Moon Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Moral Emotions: see "brain functions:emotion.”

Moro Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Morpheme: see "communication:language:language structure."

Morphine: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Morphogen: see "developmental biology.”

Morphogenesis: see "developmental biology.”

Morphological: see “morphology.”

Morphology (language): see "communication:language:language learning.”

Morphology (biology): see "biology specialty areas."

Mortification: also referred to as "necrosis."

Morula: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Mosaic: also referred to as “genetic mosaic.”

Motherese: see "communication:language:language development."

Motility: also referred to as “motion.”

MOTION: see "brain functions."

Motion Parallax: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Motion Perception: see "brain functions:perception."

MOTIVATION: see “behavior."

Motivational Interviewing: see “psychotherapy.”

Motivation Barrier: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

MOTIVATION THEORIES: see "behavior:motivation."

Motive Matching: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Motoneuron: also referred to as "motor neuron.”

Motor, Motoric: see "brain functions:motion.”

Motor Aphasia: also referred to as “Broca’s aphasia.”

Motor Cortex: also referred to as “primary motor cortex.”

Motor Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam."

Motor Homunculus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Motor Imagery: see "brain functions:motion."

Motor Nerve: also referred to as “motor neurons.”

Motor Neurons: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

MOTOR PATHWAYS: see "brain functions:motion."

Motor Perception: see "brain functions:perception."

MOTOR PROCESSES: see "brain functions:motion."

Motor Proteins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

MOTOR STRUCTURES: see "brain functions:motion."

Motor System: also referred to as “motion."

Movement: also referred to as “motion.”

Moving Picture: see "brain functions:vision:visual information.”

M. pneumonia: see “environment:organisms.”

M-Time: also referred to as "monochronic time.”

Mucosa: see “human anatomy.”

Mucus: see “human anatomy.”

Mucus Membrane: also referred to as “mucosa.”

Muller-Lyer Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Multicellular Organisms: see “environment:organisms."

Multicultural Education: see "learning:education."

Multiculturalism: see "social psychology:culture.”

Multimedia: see "learning:learning drivers."

Multimodal Association Cortex: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:association cortex."

Multiple Alleles: see "genetics:genes."

Multiple Intelligences: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Multiple Marker Screening: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Multiple Maternal Syrum Marker Test: also referred to as “multiple marker screening.”

Multiple Myelomas: see "biological disorders:cancer."

Multiple Sclerosis: see “neurological disorders.”

Multipolar Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.” 

Multi-tasking: see the Mind, Brain, and Education Glossary.

Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE): see "learning:learning types."

Muscle, Muscular: see “human anatomy.”

Muscle Dysmorphia: see "behavioral disorders:eating disorders."

Muscle Tissue: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: see “biological disorders.”

Music: see “brain functions:audition.”

Musical Alexia: see "neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Musical Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Music Therapy: see "neurology."

Mutagens, Mutagenic: see "environment:environmental risks."

Mutant: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Mutant Allele: also referred to as “mutant.”

Mutate: also referred to as “gene mutation.”

Mutations: see “genetics."

Myalgia: see “biological disorders.”

Mycoplasma: see “environment:organisms.”

Mycoplasma Genitalium: also referred to as “M. genitalium.”

Mycoplasma Pneumonia: also referred to as “M. pneumonia.”

Myelencephalon: also referred to as "medulla oblongata."

Myelin: also referred to as “myelin sheath.”

Myelinating Schwann Cells: see “nervous system:glia.”

Myelination, Myelinated: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development.”

Myelin Sheath: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development.”

Myocardial Infarction: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Myocardium: see "human anatomy:organs.”

Myopia: also referred to as “nearsightedness.”

Myotonic Dystrophy: see “biological disorders:muscular dystrophy.”

MZ Twins: see “monozygotic twins.”Na: chemical symbol for "sodium."


NAD+: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

NADH: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

NADP+: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

NADPH: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

NCC: see “neuronal correlates of consciousness.”

ncRNAs: see “noncoding RNAs.”

NGF: see “nerve growth factor.”

Naming: see "communication:language."

Nano: see "neuroscience research.”

Nanomaterial Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

Nanometer: see “neuroscience research.”

Nanosecond: see “neuroscience research.”

Nanotechnology: see "biology specialty areas."

Narcissistic Listening: see "communication:listening."

Narcolepsy: see "behavioral disorders."

NARCOTICS: see “neurochemistry."

Nasal Cavity: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Natal: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Nativism: see “learning:learning theories."

Natural Concept: see "learning:association."

Natural Consequences: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model.”

Natural Killer Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Natural Selection: see "developmental biology."

Naturalism: see "philosophy."

Naturalist Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Nature vs. Nurture: see "developmental biology."

Nearsightedness: see "neurological disorders."

Necrosis, Nectrotic: see "biological disorders."

Needs Assessment: also referred to as "training needs assessment.”

Negative Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Negative Control: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Negative Correlation: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Negative Emotions: see "brain functions:emotion."

Negative Feedback: see "biological functions."

Negative Gene Regulation: also referred to as "positive control."

Negative Punishment: also referred to as "punishment by removal."

Negative Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: also referred to as "negative symptoms.”

Negative Staining: see “biology research.”

Negative Symptoms: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Neglect: also referred to as “hemispatial neglect.”

Neglect Strategy: see "social psychology:relationships."

Neo: see "neuroanatomy."

Neocortex, Neocortical: also referred to as “cerebral cortex.”

Neopallium: also referred to as “cerebral cortex."

Neostriatum: also referred to as “corpus striatum.”

Nerve: see “nervous system."

Nerve Cell: also referred to as “neuron.”

Nerve Cell Body: also referred to as “cell body.”

Nerve Deafness: see “neurological disorders.”

Nerve Fiber: also referred to as "axon."

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Nerve Impulse: also referred to as "action potential."

Nerve Root: see “nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord.”

NERVOUS SYSTEM: see “NEUROSCIENCE."

NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: see "developmental biology."

Nervous Tissue: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

Nested Structure: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Network: see “social psychology.”

Network Effect: also referred to as “Metcalfe’s Law.”

Network Science: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neural: see "neuroanatomy."

Neural Basis of Learning: see "learning."

Neural Circuit: also referred to as “neural pathway.”

Neural Net: also referred to as “neural pathway.”

Neural Network: also referred to as “neural pathway.”

Neural Pathway: see “nervous system."

Neural Plate: see "developmental biology:nervous system development."

Neural Stem Cells: see “human anatomy:cells”

Neural Tube: see "developmental biology:nervous system development."

Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: see “neuroscience research.”

NEUROANATOMY: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Neurobiology of Long-Term Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

Neurobiology of Short-Term Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

NEUROCHEMISTRY: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

NEUROCOMMUNICATION: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Neuroeconomics: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neuroeducation: also referred to as "mind, brain, and education science."

Neuroerosion: mild cognitive impairment. (Goldberg, 63)

Neurofeedback: see “neurology."

Neurofibrillary Tangles: see "neurological disorders:Alzheimer’s disease.”

Neurofilaments: see “neuroanatomy.”

Neurogenesis: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development."

Neuroglia: see “glia.”

Neurohypophysis: see “biological functions."

Neuroimaging: see "neuroscience research."

Neuroleptic Medications: also referred to as "antipsychotics."

Neuroleptics: also referred to as “antipsychotics."

Neuroligin: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Neurological Exam: see "medicine."

Neurological Development: also referred to as "nervous system development."

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Neurological Psychology: also referred to as "neuropsychology."

NEUROLOGY: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Neuromodulation: see "neuroscience research."

Neuromodulators: see “neurochemistry.”

NEURON(S): see “nervous system."

Neuron Body: also referred to as "cell body."

Neuron Circuits: also referred to as "neural pathways."

NEURON DEVELOPMENT: see “nervous system:neurons."

Neuron Differentiation: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development."

Neuron Doctrine: see "nervous system:neurons."

NEURON STRUCTURES: see "nervous system:neurons."

NEURON TYPES: see "nervous system:neurons."

Neuronal Cell Body: also referred to as ‘cell body’ and ‘neuron body.’

Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness (NCC): see "brain functions:cognition.”

Neuronal Pathway: also referred to as "neural pathway.”

Neuronal Pruning: also referred to as “pruning.”

Neuronal Synapse: also referred to as “synapse.”

Neuropathic: see "neurological disorders."

Neuropathology: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neuropathy: see "neurological disorders."

Neuropharmacology: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neurophysiology: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neuroplasticity: see "nervous system:neurons."

Neuroprosthetic: see "neurology."

Neuropsychiatry: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

Neuropsychology: see "neuroscience specialty areas."

NEUROSCIENCE SPECIALTY AREAS: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH: see “NEUROSCIENCE.”

Neurosis: see "behavioral disorders."

Neurosurgery: see "neurology."

Neurotoxic Syndromes: see "neurological disorders."

Neurotransmission: also referred to as "synaptic transmission."

NEUROTRANSMITTERS: see “neurochemistry.”

Neurotransmitter Binding: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Neurotransmitter Release: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Neurotrophic Factors: see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Neurotrophin: also referred to as “neurotrophic factors.”

Neurulation: see "developmental biology:nervous system development."

Neutral Stimulus: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Neutron: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Newborn: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

New Mutation: also referred to as “spontaneous mutation.”

New Pathway: see "brain functions:vision:visual pathways.”

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide: also referred to as "NAD+"

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate: also referred to as "NADP+" and NADPH."

Nicotine: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Night Terrors: see "behavioral disorders."

Nihilism: see "philosophy."

Ninhydrin: see "biology research."

Nitrogen: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Nitrogenous Bases: also referred to as "base pair."

Nitrogen Terminus: also referred to as "N-Terminus."

Nociception: see “brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Nociceptive Pain: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information.”

Nociceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Nodes of Ranvier: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron development."

Noise: see “learning:attention."

Noncoding DNA: also referred to as "genome noncoding regions."

Noncoding Regions: also referred to as “genome noncoding regions.”

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs): see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Nondisjunction: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Nondirective Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Non-Gated Channel: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Nonionizing Radiation: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Nonlayered Gray Matter: see “neuroanatomy.”

Non-Myelinating Schwann Cells: see “nervous system:glia.”

Non-Overlapping Code: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Non-Polar Covalent Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Non-Protein Encoding Regions: also referred to as "genome noncoding regions."

Nonsense Mutation: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Nonsense Syllable: see "neuroscience research.”

Non Sequitur: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Non-Structural Genes: see “genetics:genes.”

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: see "communication."

Nootropic Agents: see “neurology.”

Noradrenaline: also referred to as "norepinephrine.”

Noradrenergic Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Norepinephrine (neurotransmitter): see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Norepinephrine (hormone): see "biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Normal School: see "learning:schools."

Normative Assessment: also referred to as "norm-referenced assessment.”

Normative Influence: see "behavior."

Norm-Referenced Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation.”

Nose: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Notochord: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Noun: see "communication:language:language structure.”

N-Terminus: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Nuclear Envelope: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Nuclear Family: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Nuclear Matrix: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Nuclear Membrane: also referred to as "nuclear envelope."

Nuclear Pores: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Nuclear Transfer: also referred to as “animal cloning.”

Nuclease: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

Nuclei: see "neuroanatomy."

NUCLEIC ACID(S): see “biochemistry."

Nucleic Acid Amplification: also referred to as “DNA amplification.”

Nucleoid: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Nucleolus: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Nucleosome: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Nucleotide: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Nucleotide Sequence: also referred to as “DNA sequence.”

Nucleus: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Nucleus (neuron): also referred to as "cell body.”

Nucleus Accumbens: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system. 

Nucleus Basalis: also referred to as "nucleus basalis of meynert."

Nucleus Basalis of Meynert: see "learning:attention."

Nucleus of the Thalamus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Null Hypothesis: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Nutrients: see “biochemistry.”

Nutrition: see “learning:learning environment.”O: chemical symbol for "oxygen"


OCC: see “orbital frontal cortex.”

OCD: see "obsessive-compulsive disorder."

Obedience: see "social psychology:power.”

Object Permanence: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Object Referenced Assessment: also referred to as "criterion referenced assessment."

Objective Tinnitus: see “neurological disorders.”

Objectivist: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Oblique: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Observation: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Observational Learning: see "learning:learning types."

Observer Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Obsessions: see "behavioral disorders."

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Occam's Razor: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Occipital Cortex: also referred to as "occipital lobes."

Occipital Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:occipital lobes.”

OCCIPITAL LOBES: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Occipitotemporal Gyrus: also referred to as "fusiform gyrus."

Occipitotemporal Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Occlusion: see “brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Occulomotor: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Occulomotor Nerve Nucleus: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Occupational Dystonia: see “neurological disorders.”

Odor: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory information."

Oedipus Complex: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Offspring: see “genetics:inheritance.”

Ohm: see “neuroscience research.”

Okazaki Fragments: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.” 

Old Cortical Regions: also referred to as “subcortical.”

Old Pathway: see "brain functions:vision:visual pathways.”

Olfaction: see "brain functions."

Olfactory Bulbs: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Olfactory Cortex: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Olfactory Epithelium: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Olfactory Information: see "brain functions:olfaction."

Olfactory Nerve: see “brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures.”

Olfactory Pathways: see "brain functions:olfaction."

Olfactory Processes: see “brain functions:olfaction.”

Olfactory Receptors: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory structures."

Olfactory Structures: see “brain functions:olfaction.”

Olfactory Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Olfactory System: also referred to as "olfaction."

Olfactory Tracts: also referred to as "olfactory pathways."

Oligodendrocytes: see “nervous system:glia.”

Oligodendroglia: also referred to as “oligodendrocytes."

Oligonucleotides: see "genetics:genetic research."

Oncogene: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

One-Side Neglect: also referred to as “hemispatial neglect.”

One-Word Stage: see "communication:language:language development."

Online Communication: see "communication."

Online Disinhibition: see "communication."

Ontology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Oocyte: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Oogenesis: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Opercula: see "neuroanatomy."

Operculi: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion structures."

Operant: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

OPERANT CONDITIONING: see "behavior:conditioning."

Operant Conditioning Therapies: see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies."

Operator: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Operon: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Opiate Receptor: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Opiates: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Opioids: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Opium: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Opponent-Process Theory: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Opportunity to Learn: see "learning:education."

Optic Chiasm: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Optic Decussation: also referred to as “optic chiasm.”

Optic Disk: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Optic Nerve: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Optical Illusions: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Optimals: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Optimistic Explanatory Style: see “self awareness."

Oral Herpes: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Orbit, Orbital (vision): see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Orbital (elements): see “biochemistry:elements.

Orbital Frontal Gyrus: also referred to as "orbitofrontal cortex."

Orbital Gyri: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Orbitofrontal Cortex: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures.”

Order: see “environment:taxonomy."

Organelles: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Organic: see “environment:organisms."

ORGANISMS: see “environment."

Organizational Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Organizational Culture: see "social psychology:culture."

Organizational Network: see “social psychology."

Organogenesis: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

ORGANS: see "human anatomy."

Orienting Movement: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Origin: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

Origin of Replication: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Ortholog: also referred to as “orthologous gene.”

Orthologous Gene: see "genetics:genes.”

Oscillate, Oscillation: see “neuroscience research.”

Oscilloscope: see "neuroscience research."

Osmolarity: see "biochemistry."

Osmoreceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Osmosis: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Osmotic Pressure: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Osteoarthritis: see “biological disorders.”

Out of Frame Deletion: also referred to as “frameshift.”

Out of Frame Mutation: also referred to as “frameshift.”

Outcome-Based Education: also referred to as "performance-based instruction."

Outcome-Based Instruction: also referred to as "performance-based instruction."

Outer Ear: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

Outgroup: see “social psychology:relationships:group.”

Outgroup Homogeneity Effect: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Output: see “neurocommunication.”

Ova: also referred to as "oocyte."

Oval Window: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures."

Ovaries, Ovary: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Overestimation Effect: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Overlap: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Overlapping: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

Overt Performance: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Oviduct: also referred to as "fallopian tube."

Ovoid: see "neuroanatomy.”

Ovum, Ova: see "developmental biology:reproduction.”

Oxidants: see “biochemistry.”

Oxidation, Oxidative: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Oxidative Phosphorylation: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Oxides: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Oxygen, Oxygenated (O): see “biochemistry:elements.”

Oxygen Free Radicals: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Oxytocin: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Oxytocin Magnocellular Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”PAC: see "premature atrial contraction."

Ozone: see "biochemistry:elements."

Ozone Depletion: see “environment:environmental risks.”


PCR: see "polymerase chain reaction."

pH: see “biochemistry.”

PKU: see "phenylketonuria."

PSVT: see "paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia." 

PTSD: see "post traumatic stress disorder."

PVC: see "premature ventricular contraction."

Pacemaker: see “medicine:cardiology."

Pachymenix: also referred to as "dura mater."

Pacinian Corpuscles: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Pain: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Pain Neurons: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Palaios: see "neuroanatomy."

Paleocortex: see “neuroanatomy.”

Paleopallium: also referred to as “paleocortex.”

Paleostriatum: also referred to as “globus pallidus.”

Palindromes: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Palpation: see "medicine:medical examination."

Palpitations: see "human anatomy:organs."

Pancreas: see "human anatomy:organs."

Panethnic Membership: see "behavior:culture."

Panic Attack: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Panic Disorder: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Paper Chromatography: see "biology research."

Papez Circuit: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Paracentral Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Paracrine Signaling: see “biological functions.”

Parahippocampal Cortex: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Parahippocampal Gyrus: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA): see "brain functions:memory:memory structures."

Paralanguage: see "communication:language."

Paralimbic Cortex: also referred to as "limbic lobe cortex."

Paranoid Personality Disorder: see "behavioral disorders:personality disorders."

Paranoid Schizophrenia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Paraphrasing: see "communication:speaking."

Parasagittal: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Parasite, Parasitic: see “environment:organisms.”

Parasol Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Parasympathetic Nervous System: see “nervous system.”

Parchment Skin Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Parental Strands: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Parenting: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Parietal: see "neuroanatomy." 

Parietal Cortex: also referred to as "parietal lobes.”

PARIETAL LOBES: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Parieto-Occipital Fissure: also referred to as "pre-occipital sulcus.”

Parieto-Occipital Sulcus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Parkinson’s Disease: see “neurological disorders.”

Parochial School: see "learning:schools."

Paroxysmal A-Fib: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease." 

Pars Opercularis: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Pars Orbitalis: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Pars Triangularis: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Partial Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Parts of Speech: see "language:language structure."

Parvocellular Cells (P-Cells): see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Parvocellular Division: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Passion: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Passionate Love: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion states."

Passive Diffusion: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”."

Passive Transport: also referred to as "passive diffusion."

Past Medical History: see "medicine:medical examination.”

Patau Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Pathogen, Pathogenic: see “medicine.”

Pathogenesis, Pathogenicity: see “medicine.”

Pathology: see "medicine."

Pathway: see “neuroanatomy.”

Pattern(s): see “learning:attention."

Pattern Expression: see “learning:attention."

Patterning: see "learning:attention."

Patterns of Inheritance: also referred to as "inheritance."

Pattern Recognition: see "learning:attention."

Pattern Recognition Devices: see “learning:attention."

Pavlovian Condition:also referred to as "classical conditioning.”

Paxil: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Payoff Phase of Glycolysis: see "biological functions:respiration.”

P-Cells: also referred to as “parvocellular cells.”

Pectin: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Pedigree: see “genetics:genetic research."

Peduncle: see "neuroanatomy."

Penetrance: see “genetics:genes:gene expression.”

Pentose Sugars: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

People Development: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

People-Oriented Listeners: see "communication:listening."

Peptide: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Peptide Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Percept: see "brain functions:perception."

PERCEPTION: see "brain functions."

Perception Checking: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Perception Neuron: also referred to as "sensory neuron."

Perceptual Arousal: see "learning:attention."

Perceptual Constancy: see "brain functions:perception."

Perceptual Grouping: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

PERCEPTUAL ILLUSIONS: see "brain functions:perception.”

PERCEPTUAL INFORMATION: see "brain functions:perception.”

Perceptual Interpretation: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Perceptual Organization: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES: see "brain functions:perception.”

Perceptual Processing Time: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Perceptual Selection: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Perceptual Set: see "brain functions:perception.”

Perforin: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Performance: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Performance Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Performance Assessment: see "criterion referenced assessment."

Performance-Based Assessment: see "criterion referenced assessment."

Performance-Based Licensing: see 'learning:education."

Performance Barriers: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Performance Discrepancy: also referred to as "performance problem."

Performance Drivers: also referred to as "performance barriers."

Performance Envelope: also referred to as “brain performance envelope.”

Performance Objectives: also referred to as "instructional objectives."

Performance Optimals: also referred to as "optimals."

Performance Problem: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Periallocortex: also referred to as "paleocortex.”

Periodic Table: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Periosteal Dura Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Peripersonal Space: also referred to as "space."

Peripersonal Space Map: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Peripheral Membrane Proteins: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Peripheral Nervous System: see "nervous system."

Perirhinal Cortex: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Perisynaptic: see "neuroanatomy."

Perisynaptic Schwann Cells: also referred to as "terminal schwann cells."

Permanent A-Fib: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Permeability: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Permeable: see human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Permissive Style: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Peroxisome: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Persistence: see "behavior:motivation."

Persistent A-Fib: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Person-Centered Therapy: also referred to as "client-centered therapy."

Person Perception: see "social psychology:culture."

Personal Control: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Personal Distress: see “behavioral disorders.”

Personal Impressions: see "developmental psychology:personality." 

Personal Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

PERSONALITY: see "developmental psychology."

Personality Cluster A: see "psychological treatment:personality disorders."

Personality Cluster B: see "psychological treatment:personality disorders."

Personality Cluster C: see "psychological treatment:personality disorders."

PERSONALITY DISORDERS: see "behavioral disorders."

Personality Psychology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Personality Traits: see "developmental psychology:personality.”

Personalized Medicine: see “medicine.”

Perspective Convergence: also referred to as "linear perspective."

Persuasion: see "communication:speaking."

Pervasive Developmental Disorders: also referred to as "autism spectrum."

Pes: see "neuroanatomy."

Pes Hippocampus: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Pessimistic Explanatory Style: see "self awareness."

Petit Mal Seizure: see “neurological disorders.”

PET Scan: see “positron emission tomography.”

P-Face: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Phage: also referred to as “bacteriophage.”

Phantom Limbs: see “neurological disorders.”

Pharmacogenetics: see “medicine."

Pharmacogenomic Testing: see “medicine."

Pharynx: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Phase I Clinical Trial: see “biology research.”

Phase II Clinical Trial: see “biology research.”

Phase III Clinical Trial: see “biology research.”

Phase IV Clinical Trial: see “biology research.”

pH Buffer: see “biochemistry.”

Phenocopies: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

Phenolic Compounds: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Phenomenon, Phenomena: see "psychosocial research."

Phenotype, Phenotypic: see “genetics."

Phenotypic: see “phenotype.”

Phenylketonuria (PKU): see “neurological disorders.”

Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC): see "brain functions."

Pheromones: see “biochemistry.”

Philadelphia Chromosome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

PHILOSOPHY: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Phi X 174: see "biological disorders:viruses.”

Phobias: also referred to as "phobic disorders."

Phobic Disorders: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Phonemes: see "communication:language:language structure.”

Phonics: see "communications:language:language learning.”

Phonology: see "communications:language:language learning."

Phosphate: see “biochemistry.”

Phosphate Group: see “biochemistry.”

Phosphodiester Linkage: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Phospholipid(s): see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Phospholipid Bilayer: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Phosphorus: see "biochemistry:elements."

Phosphorylation: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Photoreceptors: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Photosynthesis: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Phrase: see "communication:language:language structure."

Phycocyanins: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Phyletic Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Phyletic Wisdom: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Phylum, Phyla, Phyletic: see “environment:taxonomy."

Physical: also referred to as “physical exam.”

Physical Appearance: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Physical Attractiveness: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Physical Competence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Physical Exam: see "medicine:medical examination."

Physiology: see "biology specialty areas."

Pia: also referred to as "pia mater."

Pia Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Piaget's Stages: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

PIAGET’S THEORY: see “developmental psychology.”

Pictorial Superiority Effect: see "learning:learning drivers."

Pigment: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Pigment Molecules: also referred to as "pigment."

Pili: see "human anatomy."

Pilot Testing: also referred to as "prototype testing."

Pineal Body: also referred to as "pineal gland."

Pineal Gland: see “biological functions."

Pinna: see "brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Pint: see "biology research.”

Pitch: see “brain functions:audition.”

Pituitary Gland: see “biological functions."

Place Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Placebo: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Placebo Effect: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Placebo Response: also referred to as “placebo effect.”

Placenta: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Plane: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Planes of Section: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Plant: see “environment:organisms."

Plantar Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Plaque: see “biological disorders.”

Plasma: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Plasma Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Plasma Membrane: also referred to as "cell membrane.”

Plasmid: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA."

Plastic: also referred to as "neuroplasticity.”

Plasticity: also referred to as "neuroplasticity.”

Plastids: see “environment:organisms."

Platelets: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Playing: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Pleasure Principle: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Pleiotrophy: see "genetics:gene expression."

Plexus: see "neuroanatomy."

Pluripotent: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Pluripotency: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Pneumonia: see “biological disorders.”

Point: see "brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Point Mutation: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Polar: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Polar Covalent Bond: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions:chemical bonds.”

Polar Heads: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Polar Molecules: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Polarity: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Polarization, Polarize: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Pole: see "neuroanatomy."

Polychronic Time: see "social psychology:culture."

Polydactyly: see “biological disorders."

Polygenic Trait: see “genetics.”

Polyketides: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Polymer: see "biochemistry:molecules."

Polymerase: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): see “genetics:genetic research.”

Polymorphic: see “polymorphism.”

Polymorphism, Polymorphic: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Polypeptides: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Polypeptide Synthesis: also referred to as "protein synthesis.”

Polyploidy: see “genetics:chromosomes.”

Polysaccharides: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Polysensory: see "brain functions."

Polyunsaturated Fats: also referred to as “polyunsaturated fatty acids.”

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Pons: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Population: see “environment.”

Population Frequency: see “population risk.”

Population Risk: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Porphyria Variegata: see “biological disorders.”

Portfolio: see "psychosocial research.”

Positional Cloning: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Positive Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Positive Consequences: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model." 

Positive Control: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Positive Correlation: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Positive Emotions: see "brain functions:emotion."

Positive Feedback: see "biological functions."

Positive Gene Regulation: also referred to as "positive control."

Positive Punishment: also referred to as "punishment by application."

Positive Reappraisal: see "neurology."

Positive Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Positive Schizophrenic Symptoms: also referred to as "positive symptoms."

Positive Symptoms: see “psychological treatment:schizophrenia.”

Positivity Bias: also referred to as “positive bias.”

Positron Emission Tomography: see "neuroscience research."

Postcentral Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Postcentral Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Posterior: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscal Pathway: see “brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland: also referred to as “neurohypophysis.”

Posterior Paracentral Gyrus: also referred to as "posterior paracentral lobule."

Posterior Paracentral Lobule: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Posterior Parietal Association Area: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Posterior Parietal Lobe: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Posterior Parietal Motor Area: see “brain functions:motion:motor structures.”

Postpartum Depression: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Post-Stroke Thalamic Pain: also referred to as "central pain.”

Postsynaptic Cell: also referred to as "postsynaptic neuron."

Postsynaptic Membrane: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Postsynaptic Neuron: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Postsynaptic Receptor: also referred to as “synaptic receptor."

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Potassium (K): see “biochemistry:elements.”

Potassium Channel: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Potassium Ferrocyanide: see "biology research."

Potential: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Potential Energy: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

POWER: see "social psychology."

Power Distance: see "social psychology:power." 

Power Standards: see "learning:education."

Pragmatics: see "communication:language:language learning."

Precancerous: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Precancerous Dermatitis: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Precancerous Dermatosis: also referred to as “precancerous dermatitis.”

Precentral Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Precentral Nervous System Development: see "developmental biology:nervous system development."

Precentral Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Precognition: see "brain functions:perception."

Precuneus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Precursor, Precursor Cell: also referred to as “progenitor cell."

Predicate, Predication: see "communication:language:language structure." 

Prediction, Predicting: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Predictive: see "psychosocial research."

Predominant: see "social psychology:power."

Preexcitation Arrhythmia: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Prefix: see "communication:language:language structure."

Prefrontal Cortex: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes.”

Pregnancy: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Pregnancy Ultrasound: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Prejudice: see "social psychology:culture."

Prekindergarten: see “learning:education.”

Premature Atrial Beats: also referred to as "premature atrial contraction."

Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Premature Heartbeat: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Premature Ventricular Beats: also referred to as "premature ventricular contraction."

Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Premise: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Premotor Cortex: see “brain functions:motion:motor structures.”

Pre-mRNA: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Prenatal: see "developmental biology:reproduction.”

Prenatal Diagnostic Tests: see “developmental biology:embryology.”

Prenatal Support Structures: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Preoccipital Notches: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Preoperational Stage: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

Preposition: see "communication:language:language structure."

Preschool: also referred to as “prekindergarten.”

Prescriptive Cognition: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Preslin 1 Gene: see “neurological disorders:Alzheimers disease.”

Pressure: see "brain functions: somatic sensation:somatic information."

Presynaptic Cell: also referred to as "presynaptic neuron.”

Presynaptic Knob: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Presynaptic Membrane: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Presynaptic Neuron: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Presynaptic Terminal: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Prevalence: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Pride: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Primary Auditory Cortex: see “brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Primary Cancer: also referred to as “primary cancer.”

Primary Education: see "learning:education."

Primary Emotions: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Primary Germ Layer: see "developmental biology:embryology."

Primary Lesion: see "biological disorders."

Primary Metabolism: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism." 

Primary Motor Area: also referred to as "primary motor cortex."

Primary Motor Cortex: see "brain functions:motion:motor structures."

Primary Motor Map: also referred to as "motor homunculus."

Primary Reinforcer: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Primary School: see "learning:schools."

Primary Sensory Cortex: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

Primary Somatosensory Cortex: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic structures.”

Primary Structure: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Primary Touch Cortex: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

Primary Touch Map: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex.”

Primary Tumor: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Primary Visual Cortex: see “brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Primase: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Primates: see “environment:organisms.”

Primer: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Priming, Prime: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Priming Effect: also referred to as "priming."

Principle: see "brain functions:problem solving."

Principles of Association: see "learning:association."

Print Media: see "learning:instructional design:training implementation."

Prion: see "neurological disorders.”

Probability: see “psychological research:statistics.”

Probe: also referred to as “DNA probe.”

Problem Based Learning: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Problem Focused Coping: see "neurology."

PROBLEM SOLVING: see "brain functions:cognition."

Procedure: see "psychosocial research."

Procedural Memory: also referred to as "implicit memory."

Process: see "neuroanatomy.”

Product(s): see “biochemistry.”

Production Vocabulary: see "communication:language:language learning."

Progenitor Cells: see “human anatomy:cells”

Prognosis: see "medicine."

Programmed Cell Death: also referred to as “apoptosis.”

Programmed Instruction: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Progressive Relaxation: see "neurology."

Prokaryote(s), Prokaryotic: see “environment:organisms"

Projection (behavior): see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Projection (neurocommunication): see “neurocommunication.”

Projection Fibers: see “nervous system.”

Promoter: also referred to as a "promotor region."

Promoter Region: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription.”

Pronunciation: see "communication:language:language learning.”

Proof Reading: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication."

Propagation, Propagate: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Propagated Signal: also referred to as "action potential."

Property Linkage: see "learning:association."

Prophase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Prophase I: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Prophetic: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Prophyria Variegata: see "genetics:gene expression."

Proposition: see "psychosocial research."

Proprioception: see “brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Proprioceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Prose: see "communication:language.”

Prosencephalon: also referred to as “forebrain.”

Prosocial Behavior: see "behavior."

Prosody: see “communication:speaking.”

Prosopagnosia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Prostaglandins: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids."

Prostate Cancer: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Prostate Gland: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Protease: see "genetics:proteomics:enzymes."

PROTEIN(S): see "genetics:proteomics."

Protein Channels: also referred to as "ion channels."

Protein Folding: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure.”

Protein Isoforms: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Protein Kinase A: see “neurochemistry:growth factors.”

Protein Misfolding: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Protein Receptor: also referred to as “receptor protein.”

Protein Sequence: also referred to as “amino acid sequence.”

Protein Sorting: see "genetics:proteomics."

PROTEIN STRUCTURE: see “genetics:proteomics."

Protein Subunits: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Protein Synthesis: see "genetics:proteomics."

Protein Translation: also referred to as "RNA translation."

Protein Transporters: see “transporters.”

Protein Unfolding: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Proteoglycan: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Proteome: see “genetics:proteomics.”

PROTEOMICS: see "genetics."

Protolanguage: see “communication:language."

Proto-oncogenes: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Proton: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Protostome: see "human anatomy:cells."

Prototype: see "learning:instructional design:training development."

Prototype Testing (Instructional Design): see "learning:instructional design:training development."

Protozoa: see “environment:organisms."

Proust Effect: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Provocative Listening: see "communication:listening."

Proxemics: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Prozac: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Pruning: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron development.”

Prussian Blue Reaction: see “biology research.”

Pseudogene: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Pseudo-Listening: see "communication:listening."

Pseudounipolar Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Psilocybin: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

P-Site: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Psychiatric Disorders: also referred to as "behavioral disorders."

Psychiatric Nurse: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychiatric Social Worker: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychiatrist: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychoanalytic Theory: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

Psychokinesis: see "brain functions:perception."

Psychologist: see "psychology specialty areas."

PSYCHOLOGY SPECIALTY AREAS: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Psychomotor Epilepsy: also referred to as "temporal lobe epilepsy."

Psychoneuroimmunology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychopathology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychopharmacology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Psychosis, Psychotic: see "behavioral disorders."

Psychosocial Development Theory: see "developmental psychology.”

PSYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCH: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

PSYCHOTHERAPY: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Psychotrophic Drugs: also referred to as "psychotrophic medications."

Psychotrophic Medications: see “medicine:medications.”

P-Time: see "polychronic time."

Puberty: see "developmental psychology."

Public Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Pulmonary Artery: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Pulmonary Regurgitation: see "human anatomy:organs."

Pulmonary Valve: see "human anatomy:organs."

Pulmonary Vein: see "human anatomy:organs."

Pulse: also referred to as "heart rate."

Pulvinar: editor’s note - Latin word meaning 'cushion' For example, “pulvinar nucleus."

Pulvinar Nucleus: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Pumps: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Punctuation: see "communication:language:language learning."

Punishment: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

Punishment by Application: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

Punishment by Removal: see "behavior:conditioning:operant conditioning."

Punnett Square: see “genetics:genetic research."

Pupil Dilation: see "neuroscience research."

Purebred: also referred to as "true-breeding."

Purine: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids."

Purposeful Activity: activity that will get you where you want to go. (Mager2, 3)

Pus: see "biological disorders:infection.”

Putamen: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Pyramidal Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Pyramidal Decussation: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem."

Pyramidal Neurons: also referred to as “pyramidal cells.”

Pyrimidine: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids."

Pyruvate: see "biological functions:respiration."QT Interval: see “medicine:cardiology.”


Quadruple Screen Test: also referred to as “multiple marker screening.”

Qualia: sensory building blocks of conscious experiences. (Koch, 2)

Qualitative Inheritance: also referred to as "mendelian inheritance."

Quantitative Inheritance: also referred to as "complex inheritance.”

Quantitative Variation: also referred to as “continuous variation.”

Quart: see "biology research.”

Quaternary Structure: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Question: see "communication:language:language structure."R-1 Values: see "biology research.”


RBC: see "red blood cell."

RFLP: see “restriction fragment length polymorphism.”

RNA: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

rRNA: see "ribosomal RNA."

Race: see "social psychology:culture."

Racism: see "social psychology:culture.”

Radiation, Radioactive: see "environment:environmental risks.”

Radiation Sickness: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Radiation Therapy: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Radical: see “biochemistry.”

Radioisotope: see "biochemistry:elements."

Radiologist: see “biological specialty areas."

Radiology: see "biological specialty areas.”

Radionuclide: also referred to as “radioisotope.”

Radionuclide Scanning: see “biology research.”

Rage: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Ramification, Ramify: see "neuroanatomy."

Ramus, Rami: see "neuroanatomy."

Range: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Rapid Cycling: see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT): see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies."

Rational Emotive Therapy (RET): see "psychotherapy:cognitive therapies."

Rationalism: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

Rationalization: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Ratios: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

RB1 Protein: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Reactant: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions."

Reaction: also referred to as "chemical reaction."

Reaction Formation: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Reading Frame: also referred to as "codon."

Reagents: see "biology research."

Reality Principle: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Reasoning: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Recall, Recalling: also referred to as "retrieval."

Receiver: see "communication.”

Receiving Cell: also referred to as “postsynaptic neuron.”

Receiving Neuron: also referred to as “postsynaptic neuron.”

Receptive Aphasia: also referred to as “Wernicke’s aphasia.”

Receptive Field: see “neurocommunication.”

Receptor: see “human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Receptor Cell: also referred to as "receptor."

Receptor Mediated Endocytosis: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Receptor Neuron: also referred to as "sensory neuron.”

Receptor Protein: also referred to as "receptor."

Recessive: see “genetics:inheritance:mendelian inheritance."

Reciprocal Control: see “neurons:neurons by function:inhibitory neurons.”

Reciprocal Determinism: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Recombinant: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Recombinant DNA Molecule: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Recombinant DNA Technology: see “genetics:genetic research:genetic engineering.”

Recreational Drug(s): see “neurochemistry:narcotics."

Recurrence Risk: also referred to as “empiric risk.”

Red Blood Cells: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Redox Reaction: also referred to as "reduction-oxidation reaction."

Reducing Agents: see “biology research.”

Reducing Sugar: see "biology research."

Reduction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Reductionism, Reductionist: see “learning:learning theories."

Reduction-Oxidation Reaction: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Reds: also referred to as "amphetamine."

Redundancy: see “brain functions.”

Re-Entry: see "brain functions.”

Referent Power: see “social psychology:power.”

Reflected Light: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Reflective Journaling: see "psychosocial research."

Reflective Listening: see “psychotherapy:humanistic therapies.”

Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Reflex Arc: also referred to as "reflex."

Reflexes Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam.”

Refracted Light: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Regeneration, Regenerate: see "developmental biology."

Region: also referred to as "brain region."

Regression: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Regression Analysis: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Regulate: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Regulative Rules: see "communication:language:language learning."

Regulator: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Regulatory Genes: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.

Regulatory Proteins: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.

REINFORCEMENT: see "behavior:conditioning."

Reinforcer: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Relatedness: see "behavior:motivation."

Relational Words: see "communication:language:language structure."

RELATIONSHIPS: see “social psychology."

Relationship Devaluation: see "social psychology:relationships."

Relationship Dialectics: see "social psychology:relationships."

Relationship Goals: see "social psychology:relationships."

Relationship Maintenance: see "social psychology:relationships.”

Relationship Rules: also referred to as “relationship goals.”

Relationship Stages: see "social psychology:relationships.”

Relative Size: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Relaxation: see “neurology.”

Relearning: see "learning."

Relevance Producing Strategies: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Reliability: see “reliable.”

Reliable, Reliability: see "psychosocial research.”

Relief: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Religion-Affiliated School: see "learning:schools."

Remembering: also referred to as "retrieval."

Remember Strategy: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Repeated Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Repeats: also referred to as “repeated sequences.”

REPETITION: see "learning."

Repetition Biology: see "learning.

Repetition Drivers: see “learning:repetition.”

Repetition Intervals: see “learning:repetition.”

Repetition Priming: see “brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Repetition Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Replicate: see "replicative."

Replication Fork: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Replicative: see "psychosocial research."

Report: see "psychosocial research."

Representativeness Heuristic: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Representative Sample: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Representing, Representation: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Repression: see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Repressor Protein: see “genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

REPRODUCTION, Reproduction: see “developmental biology.”

Reproductive Structures: see “developmental biology.”

Reptilian Brain: also referred to as the "limbic system."

Research: also referred to as “basic research.”

Research Associate: see “biology research.”

Research Design: also referred to as "experimental design."

Research Paper: see "psychosocial research.”

Research Quality: see "psychosocial research."

Resegregation: see "learning:education."

Resemblance: see "learning:association."

Resistance (behavior): see “behavior:behavioral theories.”

Resistance (immunity): see “biological functions:immunity.”

Resistance Process: see “resistance (immunity).”

Resolution: see "biology research."

Resource Currency: see "social psychology:power."

Respiration, Respiratory: see "biological functions.”

Respiratory Structures: see "biological functions:respiration.”

Respondent Conditioning:also referred to as "classical conditioning."

Response: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning.”

Response Elements: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation.”

Rest: see “learning:learning environment.”

Resting Channel: also referred to as "non-gated channel."

Resting Membrane Potential: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Resting Potential: also referred to as "resting membrane potential."

Restraining Forces: see “brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Restriction Enzyme Cutting Site: also referred to as “restriction site.”

Restriction Enzymes: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Restriction Site: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Retention, Retaining: also referred to as “storage.”

Reticular Activating System: see "learning:attention."

Reticular Formation: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Reticulum: see "neuroanatomy."

Retina: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Retinal Cells: also referred to as "retinal neurons."

Retinal Ganglion Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Retinal Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Retinoic Acid: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Retrieval Cue: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Retrieval Cue Failure: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Retrieving, Retrieval: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Retrograde Amnesia: see “neurological disorders:amnesia.”

Retrovirus: see “biological disorders:retrovirus.”

Rett Syndrome: see “neurological disorders:autism spectrum.”

Reuptake: see “neurocommunication:synaptic regulation.”

Reverberating Loops: see "brain functions."

Reverberation, Reverb: see “brain functions:audition.”

Reverse Discrimination: see "social psychology:culture.”

Reverse Transcriptase: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Reward: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Reward Circuits: also referred to as "reward system.”

Reward System: see "neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Reward Power: see “social psychology:power.”

R-Group: see “biochemistry.”

Rhetorical Messages: see “communication:information."

Rhinal Fissure: also referred to as "rhinal sulcus."

Rhinal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Rhombencephalon: also referred to as “forebrain.”

Rhythm: see “brain functions:audition.”

Rhythm Deafness: see “neurological disorders:amusia.”

Ribonucleic Acid: also referred to as "RNA."

Ribose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Ribosomal Subunit: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Ribosome: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Right Angular Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Right Atrium: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Right Frontal Insula: see “brain functions:emotion:emotion structures.”

Right Hemisphere: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Right Motor Cortex: see “brain functions:motion:motor structures.”

Right Superior Lobule: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Right Temporal Lobule: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Right Ventricle: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Riley-Day Syndrome: also referred to as “familial dysautonomia.”

Risk: also referred to as “genetic risk.”

Ritalin: also referred to as “methylphenidate.”

RNA Clipping: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

RNA Polymerase: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

RNA Polymerase I: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

RNA Polymerase II: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

RNA Polymerase III: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

RNA Primer: also referred to as “primer.”

RNA Sequence: see “genetics:genome.”

RNA Sequence Analysis: also referred to as “RNA sequencing.”

RNA Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

RNA Synthesis Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

RNA TRANSCRIPTION: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids."

RNA TRANSLATION: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

RNA Translation Elongation: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

RNA Translation Initiation: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

RNA Translation Stages: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

RNA Translation Termination: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

RNA Translation Translocation: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

RNA Virus: also referred to as “viral RNA.”

Robertsonian Translocation: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Rods: see "brain functions:vision:visual structures."

Rollout: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis.”

Romance: see “social psychology:relationships:friendship.”

Rootlet: see “nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Rostral: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Rubella: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Rubella Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Rubric: see "learning:education."

Rubrobulbar Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Rubrospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Ruffini Corpuscles: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."S1: also referred to as “primary somatosensory cortex.”


S1 Phase: also referred to as “synthesis phase.”

S2: also referred to as “secondary somatosensory cortex.”

SAD: see "seasonal affective disorder."

SARS: see “severe acute respiratory syndrome.”

SMA: see “supplementary motor area.”

SNPs: see “single nucleotide polymorphisms.”

snRNPs: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

SSRI: see “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.”

SVT: see "supraventricular tachycardia.”

Saccharomyces Cerevisia: also referred to as “S. cerevisiae."

Sacral Vertebrae: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Sacrum: also referred to as "sacral vertebrae."

Sadness: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Safety: see "learning:learning environment."

Sagittal Fissure: also referred to as "great longitudinal fissure.”

Sagittal Plane: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Salience: see "learning:attention."

Saliency-Based Attention: also referred to as "bottom-up attention."

Salt: see “biochemistry.”

Sample: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Sample Bias: see "psychosocial research:bias."

Sample Size: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Sampling Bias: also referred to as "sample bias.”

Sanger Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

SA-Node: also referred to as "sinoatrial node.”

Sarcoma: see "biological disorders:cancer."

SARS Corona Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Satellite DNA: also referred to as "microsatellite sequence."

Satisfaction Generating Strategies: see "behavior:motivation:ARCS Model."

Saturated Fats: also referred to as “saturated fatty acids.”

Saturated Fatty Acids: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids."

Saturation: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Scanning Electron Microscopy: see "biology research."

Scar: see "biological disorders."

Scarlet Red: also referred to as “sudan IV.”

Scent: see "brain functions:olfaction:olfactory information.”

S. Cerevisiae: see “environment:organisms.”

Schedules of Reinforcement: see "behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Schema: see "learning:association."

Schemata: see "schema."

SCHIZOPHRENIA: see "behavioral disorders."

Schizophrenic Disorders: also referred to as "schizophrenia."

School Psychology: see "psychology specialty areas.”

SCHOOLS: see "learning."

Schwann Cells: see “nervous system:glia.”

Science: see "psychosocial research."

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: see "psychosocial research.”

Scintigraphy: also referred to as “radionuclide scanning.”

Scotoma: also referred to as “blind spot."

Script: see "learning:association."

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): see “behavioral disorders:mood disorders.”

Second: see “neuroscience research.”

Second Generation: see “genetics:inheritance:generation.”

Second Generation Antidepressants: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Second Generation Antipsychotics: see “medicine:medications:antipsychotics.”

Second Language: see "communication:language."

Second Law of Thermodynamics: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Second Messengers: see “neurochemistry.”

Second Words: also referred to as "two-word stage."

Secondary Auditory Cortex: see “brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Secondary Education: see “learning:education."

Secondary Lesion: see "biological disorders."

Secondary Metabolism: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Secondary Metabolites: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Secondary Motor Cortex: see “brain functions:motion:motor structures.”

Secondary Pathway: see “nervous system."

Secondary School: see "learning:schools."

Secondary Somatosensory Cortex: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic structures.”

Secondary Structure: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure.”

Secondary Visual Cortex: see “brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Secondhand Smoke: also referred to as “environmental tobacco smoke”

Secret: see "communication:information.”

Secretase: see “genetics:proteomics:enzymes.”

Secretion, Secretory: see "biological functions.”

Secretory Granules: also referred to as “secretory vesicles.”

Secretory Vesicles: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Segment: also referred to as “DNA sequence.”

Segregate: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Segregation: see "learning:education."

Seizures: see “neurological disorders.”

Selectins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Selective Attention: see "learning:attention."

Selective Listening: see "communication:listening."

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI): see “medicine:medications.”

Self: see "self awareness."

SELF AWARENESS: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Self-Concept: see "self awareness."

Self-Control: see "self awareness."

Self-Determination Theory: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Self-Disclosure: see "self awareness."

Self-Discrepancy Theory: see "self awareness."

Self-Effacing Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Self-Efficacy: see "self awareness."

Self-Esteem: see "self awareness."

Self-Fertilization: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: see "self awareness."

Self-Limiting: see "medicine."

Self Presentation: see "communication:speaking."

Self-Recognition: see "self awareness."

Self-Referencing: see "learning:learning drivers."

Self-Serving Bias: see “psychosocial research:bias.”

Self Stimulation: also referred to as "intracranial self stimulation."

Semantic Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory types."

Semantics: see "communication:language:language learning."

Semiautonomous Organelles: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Semicircular Canals: see "brain functions:motion."

Seminal Vesicles: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Semipermeable: see human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Sender: see "communication.”

Sending Cell: also referred to as “presynaptic neuron.”

Sending Neuron: also referred to as “presynaptic neuron.”

Senescent: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division.”

Senile Dementia, Senility, Senile: see “neurological disorders.”

Sensation: see "brain functions."

Sensation Seeking: see "behavior:motivation:motivation theories."

Sense(s): see "brain functions."

Sense Receptors: also referred to as "somatosensory receptors."

Sensitization: see "learning:learning types."

Sensorimotor Stage: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

Sensorium: see "brain functions."

Sensory: also referred to as "sensation."

Sensory Anthropology: see "biology specialty areas.”

Sensory Aphasia: also referred to as “Wernicke’s aphasia.”

Sensory Cortex: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

Sensory Data: also referred to as "sensory information."

Sensory Exam: see "medicine:neurological exam."

Sensory Homunculus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Sensory Information: see "brain functions."

Sensory Input: also referred to as “sensory information."

Sensory Motor Agents: also referred to as “low road.”

Sensory Motor Behaviors: also referred to as “low road.”

Sensory Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Sensory Pathways: also referred to as “neural pathways.”

Sensory Reception: also referred to as “somatic sensation."

Sensory Receptors: also referred to as "somatosensory receptors.”

Sensory Stimuli: also referred to as “sensory information."

Sensory Substitution Inventions: see "neurology."

Sensory System: also referred to as "somatic sensation."

Sensory Transduction: also referred to as "transmission."

Sentence: see "communication:language:language structure."

Sentence Structure: also referred to as "syntax."

Sentience: see "brain functions.”

Sepsis, Septic: see “biological disorders.”

Septal, Septum: see “human anatomy."

Septal Area: also referred to as "septal nuclei.”

Septal Nuclei: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.”

Septal Region: also referred to as "septal nuclei.”

Sequence (learning): see “learning:attention.”

Sequence (biology): see “genetics:genome.”

Sequence Tagged Site (STG): see “genetics:genome.”

SEQUENCING: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Serotonergic Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Serotonin: see “neurochemistry:neurotransmitters.”

Sertraline: also referred to as “zoloft.”

Serum-Free Culture Media: see “biology research.”

Servo-Control Loop: see "brain functions.”

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Sex: see "learning:attention."

Sex Cell: also referred to as "gamete."

Sex Chromosome: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Sex Drive: also referred to as "libido."

Sex-Linked Inheritance: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

Sex Ratio: see “medicine:biostatistics.”

Sexism: see "social psychology:culture."

Sexual Harassment: see "communication."

Sexual Orientation: see "social psychology:culture."

Sexual Reproduction: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Shade: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Shadow: see "brain functions:vision:visual information.”

Shadowing: see “biology research.”

Shame: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Shape Constancy: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Shape Perception: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Shaping: see "behavior:conditioning."

Shaping Therapy: see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies."

Shells: see "biochemistry:elements."

Shepard Tables Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

Shingles: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Short Association Fibers: see “nervous system.”

Short Tandem Repeats: also referred to as "microsatellite sequence."

Short-Term Dynamic Therapy: see “psychotherapy.”

Short-Term Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

Shotgun Sequencing: also referred to as “whole genome shotgun sequencing.”

Sickle Cell Disease: see “biological disorders."

Side Chain: also referred to as “R-group."

Sign Language: see “communication:language.”

Signal(s): see “neurocommunication.”

Signal Transduction: also referred to as "signaling."

Signal Transduction Pathway: also referred to as “signaling pathway."

Signaling: see “biological functions.”

Signaling Molecules: also referred to as "messenger molecules.”

Signaling Pathway: see “biological functions.”

Significant Incident Analysis: also referred to as "critical incident analysis.”

Silent: also referred to as “synonymous."

Silent Mutation: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Silver: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Silver Staining: see “biology research.”

Silvian Fissure: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:cortical sulci.”

Similarity: see "social psychology:relationships:friendship."

Simple Phobia: also referred to as "specific phobia."

Simulation: see "psychosocial research.”

Simultanagnosia: see “neurological disorders:agnosia.”

Single Blind Study: see “psychosocial research:scientific method.”

Single Feature Model: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Single Gene Inheritance: also referred to as “mendelian inheritance.”

Single Neuron Insufficiency Principle: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): see "genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Single Parent Family: see "social psychology:relationships:family."

Single Photo Emission Computerized Tomography (SPEC Scan): see "neuroscience research."

Single Recognition Particle: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA translation.”

Single-Strand Binding Protein: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Single-Trait Hybrids: also referred to as "monohybrid cross."

Sinoatrial Node: see "human anatomy:organs."

Sinus: see "human anatomy."

Sinus Node: also referred to as “sinoatrial node.”

Sinus Tachycardia: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Sinusitis: see "biological disorders."

Sister Chromatids: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Situational Attribution: also referred to as "external attribution."

Si Unit: see “system of units.”

Size Constancy: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual processes.”

Skeletal System, Skeleton: see “human anatomy.”

Skill Barrier: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Skinnerian Conditioning: also referred to as "operant conditioning.”

Skull: see “neuroanatomy.”

Sleep Apnea: see "behavioral disorders:sleep disorders.”

SLEEP DISORDERS: see "behavioral disorders."

Sleep Paralysis: see "behavioral disorders.”

Sleep Sickness: see "behavioral disorders:sleep disorders.”

Small Intestine: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Small Subunit: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Small Talk: see “communication:speaking.”

Smallpox: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Smallpox Virus: see “biological disorders:viruses.”

Smell: also referred to as "olfactory information."

Smell Blindness: also referred to as "anosmia."

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

SNP Maps: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Social: see "social psychology."

Social and Environmental History: see "medicine:medical examination."

Social Anxiety Disorders: also referred to as "social phobias."

Social Attribution: see “behavior:motivation:attribution.”

Social Brain: see "social psychology."

Social Categorization: see "social psychology."

Social Cognition: also referred to as “social processing.”

Social Cognitivism: also referred to as “cognitivism."

Social Comparison: see "social psychology."

Social Competence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Social Development: also referred to as "developmental psychology.”

Social Development Theory: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Social Exchange Theory: see "social psychology."

Social Influence: see "social psychology."

Social Intelligence: also referred to as “cultural intelligence."

Social Isolation: see "social psychology."

Social Learning Theory of Gender Role Development: see "social psychology:culture."

Social Loafing: see "social psychology:relationships:group.”

Social Network: see “social psychology.”

Social Network Currency: see "social psychology:power.”

Social Networking Analysis: see “social psychology.”

Social Norms: see "social psychology."

Social Penetration Theory: see "social psychology."

Social Phobias: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders."

Social-Polite Touch: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: see “PSYCHOLOGY.”

Social Processing: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Social Schema: see "social psychology."

Social Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Social Stratification: see "social psychology."

Social Support: see "communication:speaking." 

Sociocultural Theory: also referred to as "cross-cultural psychology."

Socioeconomic Status: see "social psychology."

Socratic Method: see "learning:instructional strategies."

Sodium (Na): see “biochemistry:elements.”

Sodium Channel: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Soft Education Technologies: see "learning:instructional design."

Soluble: see “biochemistry.”

Solubility: see “biochemistry."

Solute: see "biochemistry."

Solution: see "biochemistry."

Solution System Recommendations: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Solvent: see "biochemistry."

Soma: also referred to as “cell body.”

Somatic Cells: see "human anatomy:cells."

Somatic Illusions: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

SOMATIC INFORMATION: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Somatic Marker Hypothesis: see "brain functions:emotion."

Somatic Nervous System: see "nervous system.”

Somatic Pathways: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Somatic Psychology: see "psychology specialty areas."

Somatic Receptors: also referred to as "somatosensory receptors.”

SOMATIC SENSATION: see "brain functions."

SOMATIC STRUCTURES: see "brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Somatoform Disorders: see “behavioral disorders.”

Somatoparaphrenia: see “neurological disorders.”

Somatosensory Cortex: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

SOMATOSENSORY RECEPTORS: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Somatosensory System: also referred to as "somatic sensation."

Somatotrophin: also referred to as “growth hormone.”

Sorting Signals: see “biological functions.”

Sound: also referred to as "auditory information."

Sound Perception: see "brain functions:perception."

Sound Waves: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information."

Source: also referred to as "sender."

Source Confusion: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Source Traits: see "developmental psychology:personality.”

Southern Blotting: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Space: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory information."

Space Zones: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Spatial Cognition: see "brain functions:cognition."

Spatial Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Spatial Location: see "brain functions:audition:auditory information."

Spatial Reasoning: also referred to as “spatial cognition”

SPEAKING: see "communication.”

Speaking Strategies: see "communication:speaking.”

Speaking Tactics: see "communication:speaking.”

Special Education: also referred to as "special education needs student."

Special Education Needs Student: see learning:education."

Specialization: see “brain functions.”

Species: see “environment:taxonomy."

Specific Dyslexia: also referred to as "dyslexia."

Specific Learning Outcomes: also referred to as "instructional objectives."

Spectral Karyotype (SKY): see “genetics:genetic research:genetic testing.”

Spectrophotometry: see "biology research.”

Spectrum: see “brain functions:vision:visual information.”

SPECT Scan: also referred to as “single photo emission computerized tomography.”

Speculation: see "psychosocial research:scientific method."

Speech Acts: see "language."

Speed: also referred to as "amphetamine."

Sperm: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Spermatogenesis: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Spike: also referred to as "action potential."

Spinal Canal: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Spinal Cavity: also referred to as "spinal canal.”

SPINAL COLUMN: see "nervous system:central nervous system.” 

SPINAL CORD: see "nervous system:central nervous system.”

Spinal Nerve Root: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal nerves."

SPINAL NERVES: see "nervous system:central nervous system."

Spinal Root: also referred to as "spinal nerve root.”

Spinal Segment: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Spindle Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Spine: also referred to as "spinal column."

Spiny Cells: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Spiritualism: see “philosophy.”

Spleen: see "human anatomy:organs."

Splenium: see "neuroanatomy."

Spliceosome: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Splicing: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Split Brain Surgery: see "neurology."

Sponsor: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Spontaneous Movement: see "human anatomy:cells:cellular transport."

Spontaneous Recovery: see “behavior:conditioning."

Sports Psychology: see “psychology specialty areas."

Spread Your Bets Evenly: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

Stages of Development: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Stagnating: see "social psychology:relationships.”

Stain: see “biology research.”

Stakeholders: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Standard Deviation: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Standard Error Bars: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

Standardization: see "psychosocial research."

Standardized Tests: see "learning:education."

Standards-Based Curriculum: see "learning:education."

Standards-Based Education: also referred to as "standards-based curriculum."

Stapes: see "audition:auditory structures."

Starch: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Start-Code Sequence: also referred to as "start codon."

Start Codon: see “genetics:genetic code.”

State Colleges: see "learning:schools."

State-Dependent Learning: also referred to as "context-dependent learning."

State Teacher Colleges: see "learning:schools."

Statement: see "communication:language:language structure." 

Statistical Significance: see "psychosocial research:statistics."

STATISTICS: see "psychosocial research."

Stellate Cells: also referred to as "granule cells."

Stem Cells: see "human anatomy:cells.”

Step Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Stereognosis: see "brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Stereogram: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information."

Stereotypes, Stereotyping: see "social psychology:culture."

Steroids: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Stimulation, Stimulate: also referred to as “excitation.”

Stimulus, Stimuli: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Stimulus Discrimination: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Stimulus Generalization: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Stirrup: also referred to as “stapes.”

Stomach: see “biological functions.”

Stomach Cancer: see "biological disorders:cancer."

Stop-Code Sequence: also referred to as "stop codon."

Stop Codon: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Storage Bottles: see “biology research.”

Storing, Storage: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes."

Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

STRESS: see “neurological disorders.”

Stress Contagion Effect: see “neurological disorders:stress."

Stress Management: see "neurology."

Stressors: see “neurological disorders:stress."

Stress Reaction: see “neurological disorders:stress."

Striate Cortex: also referred to as "primary visual cortex.”

Striate Nucleus: also referred to as the “corpus striatum.”

Striatum: also referred to as "corpus striatum."

Stroboscopic Motion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

STROKE: see "neurological disorders.”

Stroke Caused Arm Paralysis: see “neurological disorders:stroke.”

Stroop Inference: see "neuroscience research."

Stroop Test: also referred to as "stroop interference."

Structural Genes: see “genetics:genes.”

Structural Improvements: see "social psychology:relationships."

Structural Proteins: see “genetics:proteomics:proteins.”

Structuralism: see "behavior:behavioral theories.”

Students: see “learning:education.”

Study Design: see “experimental design.”

Subarachnoid Cistern: also referred to as "cisterna."

Subarachnoid Space: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Subatomic Particles: see "biochemistry:elements."

Subcallosal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:limbic system.

Subcortical: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Subicular Cortex: also referred to as "subiculum."

Subiculum: see “brain functions:memory:memory structures.”

Subject: see "communication:language:language structure."

Subject Matter Analysis: also referred to as "content analysis.”

Subjective Tinnitus: see “neurological disorders.”

Sublimation: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Submissiveness: see "social psychology:power."

Substantia Innominata: also referred to as "nucleus basalis of meynert."

Substantia Nigra: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia.”

Substitution: see "genetics:genes:genetic variation."

Substrate: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions.

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy.”

Subtelomers: see “genetics:chromosomes.”

Subthalamic Nucleus: see "neuroanatomy:basil ganglia."

Subthalamus: see "neuroanatomy:diencephalon."

Subunit: also referred to as "protein subunit."

Success Opportunities: see "motivation:ARCS motivational model."

Sucrose: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Sudan IV: see "biology research."

Sudden Cardiac Arrest: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.”

Suffix: see "communication:language:language structure."

Sugar: see “biochemistry:molecules:carbohydrates.”

Sugar-Phosphate Backbone: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA.”

Sulcus, Sulci: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Sulphate Group: see “biochemistry.”

Summation Columns: see “brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Summative Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Summative Evaluation: see "learning:instructional design:training evaluation."

Superego: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Superficial: see "neuroanatomy."

Superficial Fascia: see “human anatomy:tissues.”

Superior: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Superior Colliculus: see "neuroanatomy:brain stem."

Superior Frontal Gyrus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:frontal lobes."

Superior Frontal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Superior Parietal Lobule: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Superior Temporal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Superior Temporal Sulcus: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Superiority Complex: see "behavioral disorders."

Superkingdom: also referred to as "domain."

Supplementary Motor Area: see “brain functions:motion:motor structures.”

Supplementary Motor Cortex: also referred to as "supplementary motor area.”

Supportive Messages: see “communication:information.”

Suppression Columns: see “brain functions:audition:auditory structures.”

Supra: see "neuroanatomy."

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: see "learning:attention."

Supramarginal Gyrus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:parietal lobes.”

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Surface Membrane: also referred to as “cell surface membrane.”

Surface Traits: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Surprise: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Surround: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Survey: see "psychosocial research."

Syllable: see "communication:language:language structure."

Sylvian Fissure: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Symbol: see "communication:language:language structure."

Symbol System: see "communication:language:language structure."

Symbolic Thought: see “developmental psychology:piaget's theory.”

Symmetrical Relationships: see "social psychology:relationships."

Sympathetic Nervous System: see “nervous system.”

Symporters: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Symptom: see "behavioral disorders."

Syn: see "neuroanatomy."

SYNAPSE, SYNAPTIC: see “neurocommunication.”

Synaptic Cleft: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Synaptic Diffusion: see “neurocommunication:synaptic regulation.”

Synaptic Gap: also referred to as "synaptic cleft."

Synaptic Gulf: also referred to as "synaptic cleft."

Synaptic Potential: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Synaptic Plasticity: also referred to as “neuroplasticity.”

Synaptic Pruning: also referred to as “pruning.”

Synaptic Receptors: see “neurocommunication:synapse.”

Synaptic Regulation: see “neurocommunication.”

Synaptic Strength: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Synaptic Terminal: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Synaptic Traffic: also referred to as "neurocommunication."

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION: see “neurocommunication.”

Synaptic Vesicles: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structure.”

Syndrome: see "behavioral disorders."

Synesthesia: see “neurological disorders.”

Syntax, Syntactic: see "communication:language:language learning."

Synthesis, Synthesize: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Synthesis Phase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Synthesis Reactions: see “biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Synthetic Biology: see "biology specialty areas.”

System: see “brain functions."

System 1: also referred to as "low road."

System 2: also referred to as "high road.”

System of Units: see “neuroscience research.”

Systematic Desensitization: see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Systemic Radiotherapy: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Systems Biology: see "biology specialty areas."

Systems Neurophysiology: also referred to as  “network science."

Systems Problem of Memory: see "brain functions:memory:memory processes.”

Systolic Blood Pressure: see “medicine.”TAT: see "thematic apperception test."


THC: see “biochemistry.”

TMS: see "transcranial magnet stimulation."

tNRA: see "transfer RNA."

Tabula Rasa: see "developmental psychology:childhood development.

Tachy: also referred to as "tachycardia."

Tachycardia: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Tactile Perception: also referred to as "touch."

Tactile Vision Machine: see "neurology."

Tectospinal Tract: see “brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Tagging: also referred to as "glycocalyx."

Taijin Kyofusho: see "behavioral disorders:anxiety disorders.”

Tailbone: also referred to as “coccyx.”

Take the Do-Nothing Default: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Tandem Repeat Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Tangles: see "neurofibrillary tangles."

Tannins: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Target: also referred to as “postsynaptic neuron.”

Target Cell: also referred to as “postsynaptic neuron.”

Target Population Analysis: also referred to as "audience analysis.”

Task Analysis: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis."

Taste: also referred to as "gustation."

Taste Buds: see "brain functions."

Taste Perception: see "brain functions:perception.”

TATA-Binding Protein: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

TATA Box: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

TAXONOMY: see “environment.”

Tay-Sachs Disease: see “neurological disorders.”

T-Cells: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Teacher: see “learning:education.”

Teaching: also referred to as “instruction.”

Technocracy: see "social psychology:power."

Technology: see "learning:instructional design."

Tectospinal Tract: see "brain functions:motion:motor pathways.”

Tectum: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Tegmentum: see “neuroanatomy:brain stem.”

Telencephalon: see “neuroanatomy.”

Telepathy: see "brain functions:perception.”

Telomerase: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Telomere: see "genetics:chromosomes."

Telophase: see "human anatomy:cells:cell division."

Temperament: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.” 

Temperature: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information.”

Template Strand: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids.”

Tempo: see “brain functions:audition.”

Temporal: see "neuroanatomy."

Temporal Cortex: also referred to as "temporal lobes."

Temporal Gradient of Retrograde Amnesia: see “neurological disorders:amnesia.” 

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: see “neurological disorders:epilepsy.”

TEMPORAL LOBES: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex.”

Temporal-Parietal Junction: see "cerebral cortex:temporal lobes."

Temporal Poles: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Temporal Processing: see "brain functions."

Temporal Sulci: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:sulcus."

Tendon: see “human anatomy.”

Tentorium Cerebelli: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Teratogens: see "environment:environmental risks."

Terminal: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Terminal Bouton: also referred to as "axon terminal.”

Terminal Repeat Sequences: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Terminal Schwann Cells: see “nervous system:glia.”

Terminating: see "social psychology:relationships."

Termination Sequence: also referred to as "stop codon."

Termination Stage: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Terpenoids: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:metabolism."

Territoriality: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Tertiary Somatosensory Cortex: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic structures.”

Tertiary Structure: see “genetics:proteomics:protein structure."

Test (Testing): also referred to as "assessment."

Test Cross: see “genetics:genetic research."

Test Items: see "learning:instructional design:training design.”

Test Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Test Tubes: see "biology research."

Testes: see "developmental biology:reproduction."

Testosterone: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Tetrahydrocannabinol: also referred to as “THC.”

Texture: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Texture Gradient: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Thalamic Medio-Dorsal Nucleus: also referred to as “dorsomedial nucleus.”

Thalamus, Thalami, Thalamic: see “diencephalon.”

Thanatos: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Theatre: see "brain functions:emotion." 

Theatre Games: see "learning:learning types."

The Enlightenment: also referred to as "emergence of the common man."

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): see "behavior:motivation."

Theory: see "psychosocial research."

Theory of Affordances: see "brain functions:perception."

Theory of the Mind: see "brain functions:cognition."

Therapeutic Drugs: see "medicine."

Thermoception: see "brain functions:somatic sensation.”

Thermocyte: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Thermodynamics: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions:biological energy."

Thermoreceptors: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatosensory receptors."

Thesis: see "psychosocial research."

Thinking: also referred to as “cognition.”

Thinking Processes: also referred to as "cognitive processes."

Third Generation Antidepressants: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Third Generation Antipsychotics: see “medicine:medications:antipsychotics.”

Third-Person Account: also referred to as "third-person perspective."

Third-Person Perspective: see "communication:language."

Third Ventricle: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Thoracic Vertebrae: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column.”

Thorax: see “human anatomy.”

Threats and Hunger: see “learning:attention."

Three Cell Reflex: also referred to as “three neuron reflex."

Three Neuron Reflex: see "brain functions:motion:motor processes.”

Threshold: also referred to as "threshold potential."

Threshold Potential: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission.”

Throat: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Thrombocytes: also referred to as ‘platelets.’

Thrombus: also referred to as “blood clot.”

Thy: see "self awareness."

Thymine: see “biochemistry.”

Thymine Dimer: see “genetics:genes:genetic variation.”

Thymocytes: also referred to as “T-cells.”

Thymus: see "human anatomy:organs."

Thyroid: see “biological functions."

Thyroxine: see "biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Tight Junctions: see "genetics:proteomics:proteins."

Timbre: see “brain functions:audition.”

Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Time-Oriented Listeners: also referred to as “action-oriented listeners."

Timespan: see “neuroscience research.”

Timezone: see “neuroscience research.”

Tinnitus: see “neurological disorders.”

TISSUES: see "human anatomy."

Tit-for-Tat: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies.”

T-Lymphocytes: also referred to as “T-cells.”

Tobacco: see “neurochemistry:narcotics.”

Token Economy Therapy: see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies."

Tolerance: see "neurochemistry:narcotics."

Tone: see “brain functions:audition.”

Tone Deafness: see “neurological disorders:amusia.”

Tonically Active: see “neurocommunication:excitation.”

Tonic-Clonic Seizure: also referred to as "grand mal seizure.”

Tonsils: see “biological functions:immunity.”

Top-Down Attention: see "learning:attention."

Top-Down Processing: see “brain functions:cognition.”

Topographical: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex."

Topoisomerase: see “biochemistry:nucleic acids:DNA replication.”

Total Amusia: see “neurological disorders:amusia.”

Touch: see "brain functions:somatic sensation."

Touch Cortex: also referred to as "primary somatosensory cortex."

Touch Map: also referred to as "sensory homunculus.”

Toxic: see "environment:environmental risks.”

Toxins: see "environment:environmental risks.”

Trabecula, Trabecular: see "human anatomy:tissues."

Trace Amines: see "neurochemistry:neurotransmitters."

Trace Minerals: see “biochemistry:elements.”

Trachea: see “biological functions:respiration.”

Tract: see “nervous system.”

Tract-Tracers: see “neuroscience research.”

TRAINING ANALYSIS: see "learning:instructional design."

TRAINING DESIGN: see "learning:instructional design."

TRAINING DEVELOPMENT: see "learning:instructional design."

TRAINING EVALUATION: see "learning:instructional design."

TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION: see "learning:instructional design."

Training Needs Assessment: see "learning:instructional design:training analysis.”

Training Product: see "learning:instructional design:training development."

Trait: see "genetics."

Trait Theory: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Transactional Communication Model: see "communication.”

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): see "neuroscience research."

Transcript: also referred to as "mRNA"

Transcription: also referred to as "RNA Transcription."

Transcription Factors: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

Transcriptional Start Site: see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA transcription."

Transcriptomics: see "biology specialty areas."

Transduction: also referred to as "transmission."

Transference: see “behavior:behavioral theories."

Transfer RNA (tRNA): see "biochemistry:nucleic acids:RNA."

Transformation Efficiency: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Transgenic: see “environment:organisms."

Transient: see “neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Transitional Cortex: also referred to as "mesocortex.”

Transition State: see "biochemistry:chemical reactions.”

Translation: also referred to as "RNA translation."

Translocation: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Transmembrane Gradient: see "biochemistry."

Transmembrane Protein: also referred to as "transport protein."

Transmission, Transmit: see “neurochemistry.”

Transmission Electron Microscopy: see "biology research.”

Transmitter: also referred to as “neurotransmitter.”

Transmitter-Gated Ion Channel: also referred to as "ligand-gated channel.”

Transporter Proteins: also referred to as "transport proteins.”

Transporters: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Transport Proteins: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Transport Vesicles: also referred to as "vesicles."

Transposable Elements: see “genetics:genome noncoding regions.”

Transposons: also referred to as “transposable elements."

Transverse: also referred to as “horizontal.”

Transverse Temporal Gyri of Heschl: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Trauma, Traumatic: see “environment:environmental risks.”

Tremor: see "neurological disorders."

Triacylglycerols: also referred to as "triglycerides."

Trial: see "psychosocial research."

Trial and Error: see “brain functions:problem solving.”

Trial Screening: see “medicine.”

Trichromatic Theory: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual information.”

Tricuspid Valve: see "human anatomy:organs."

Tricyclics: see “medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Trigger Zone: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron structures.”

Triglycerides: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Triodothyronine: see “biochemistry:molecules:hormones.”

Triplet: also referred to as "codon."

Triplet Code: also referred to as "codon."

Triplo-X: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Trisomies: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Trisomy 13: also referred to as “Patau syndrome.”

Trisomy 18: also referred to as “Edward syndrome.”

Trisomy 21: also referred to as “Down syndrome.”

Trp Operon: see "genetics:genes:gene regulation."

True-Breeding: see “genetics:genetic research."

Trust: see "brain functions:emotion:emotion types."

Tubule: see "human anatomy."

Tuft: see "human anatomy."

Tumor: see "biological disorders:cancer.”

Tumor-Suppressor Gene: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

Turner Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

Twice Exceptional: also referred to as "dual identified student."

Two-Word Stage: see "communication:language:language development."

Tympanic Cavity: also referred to as "middle ear."

Tympanic Membrane: also referred to as "eardrum."

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: see "biological disorders:diabetes."

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: see "biological disorders:diabetes."

Type A Blood: see "genetics:genes."

Type B Blood: see "genetics:genes."

Type AB Blood: see "genetics:genes."

Type A Personality: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Type B Personality: see "developmental psychology:personality."

Type O Blood: see "genetics:genes."UVA: see “environment:environmental risks."


UVB: see “environment:environmental risks."

U-Fibers: also referred to as “short association fibers.”

Ulcer: see "biological disorders:infection.”

Ulrich Syndrome: also referred to as “Turner Syndrome.”

Ultraviolet Radiation: see “environment:environmental risks."

Ulysses Contract: see "brain functions:cognition:decision strategies."

Umbilical Cord: see "developmental biology:embryology.”

Unambiguous: see “psychosocial research.”

Uncertainty Reduction Theory: see "communication.”

Unconditional Love: also referred to as "unconditional positive regard."

Unconditional Positive Regard: see "behavior:behavioral theories."

Unconditional Positive Regard Therapy: see “psychotherapy:humanistic therapies.”

Unconditioned Response: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Unconditioned Stimulus: see "behavior:conditioning:classical conditioning."

Unconscious: also referred to as “unconscious cognition.”

Unconscious Cognition: see "brain functions:cognition.”

Uncus: see “neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes.”

Undersurface(s): see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.

Unicellular: see "human anatomy:cells."

Unicellular Organisms: see “environment:organisms."

Unimodal Association Cortex: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:association cortex."

Unipolar Disorder: also referred to as "major depression.”

Unipolar Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Uniporters: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Units of Biology: also referred to as “biology units.”

Units of Electricity: see “neuroscience research.”

Units of Length: see “neuroscience research.”

Units of Neuroscience: also referred to as “neuroscience units.”

Units of Time: see “neuroscience research.”

Units of Volume: see “biology research.”

Universal Code: see “genetics:genetic code.”

Universal Donor: also referred to as "Type O Blood."

University: see "learning:schools."

University Affiliated School: also referred to as "lab school."

Unlearning: see "learning."

Unmasking: see “nervous system.”

Unsaturated Fats: also referred to as “unsaturated fatty acids.”

Unsaturated Fatty Acids: see “biochemistry:molecules:lipids.”

Unschooling: see “learning:schools.”

Unspecified: see “biological disorders.”

Untranslated RNA: also referred to as “noncoding RNAs.”

Upper Motor Neuron: see "nervous system:neurons:neuron types."

Uppers: also referred to as "amphetamine."

Uracil: see “biochemistry."

Usable Energy: also referred to as "free energy."

Uterine Tube: also referred to as "fallopian tube."

Uterus, Uterine: see "developmental biology:embryology."V1: also referred to as "primary visual cortex.”


V4: see “brain functions:vision:visual structures.”

Vaccine, Vaccination: see “medicine.”

Vacuoles: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Vagus Nerve: see "nervous system."

Valid, Validity: see "psychosocial research.”

Valium: also referred to as "diazepam."

Valve: see “biological functions:circulation.” 

Van der Waals Forces: see "biochemistry:elements."

Variability: see "learning:attention."

Variable: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Variable Expression: see “genetics:genes:gene expression.”

Variable-Interval Schedule: see “behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Variable Number of Tandem Repeats: also referred to as “microsatellite repeats.”

Variable-Ratio Schedule: see “behavior:conditioning:reinforcement."

Variance: see “psychosocial research:statistics.”

Variant: also referred to as “gene variant."

Variation: also referred to as “genetic variation.”

Varicella: also referred to as “chickenpox.”

Variola Virus: also referred to as “smallpox virus.”

Vascular, Vascularize: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Vasopressin: see "biochemistry:molecules:hormones."

Vasopressin Magnocellular Neuron: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Vector: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Vegal Nerve Stimulator: see "neurology."

Vein, Venous: see “biological functions:circulation.”

Vena Cavae: see “human anatomy:organs.”

Venous Sinuses of Dura Mater: see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Ventral: see "neuroanatomy:ways to view the brain."

Ventral Horn: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal cord."

Ventral Nerve Roots: also referred to as "ventral roots."

Ventral Pathway: also referred to as the "what pathway."

Ventral Rootlets: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal nerves."

Ventral Roots: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal nerves."

Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA): see "neuroanatomy:limbic system."

Ventral Tier: see “neuroanatomy:diencephalon.”

Ventricle (heart): see “human anatomy:organs.”

Ventricle (brain): see “nervous system:central nervous system.”

Ventricular Fibrillation: see “biological disorders:cardiovascular disease.” 

Ventricular System: see "nervous system:central nervous system.”

Ventricular Tachycardia: see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Venule: see “biological functions.”

Verb: see "communication:language:language structure."

Verbal Communication: also referred to as "speaking."

Veridical: also referred to as "descriptive cognition."

Vertebrae: see "nervous system:central nervous system:spinal column."

Vertebral Canal: also referred to as "spinal canal.” 

Vertebral Column: also referred to as "spinal column."

Vertebral Foramen: also referred to as "spinal canal.”

Vertebrate: see “environment:organisms."

Vertical Evolution: see "developmental biology."

Vesicle: see "human anatomy:cells:cell structures."

Vestibular Apparatus: see "brain functions:motion."

Vestibular Nuclei: see "brain functions:motion."

Vestibular Sense: see "brain functions:motion."

Vestibular System: see "brain functions:motion."

Vestibule: also referred to as "vestibular apparatus.”

V-Fib: also referred to as "ventricular fibrillation."

Vibration: see "brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information."

Villi, Villous: see “human anatomy:cells:cell structures.”

Viral DNA: see “biological disorders:retrovirus.”

Viral Infection: see “biological disorders:infection.”

Viral Infection Theory of Schizophrenia: see “behavioral disorders:schizophrenia.”

Viral RNA: see “biological disorders:retrovirus.”

Viral Vector: see “genetics:genetic research.”

Virtual Exposure Therapy: also referred to as "virtual reality therapy."

Virtual Network: see “social psychology."

Virtual Reality (VR): see "neurology."

Virtual Reality Box: see "neurology."

Virtual Reality Learning: see "learning:learning types."

Virtual Reality Therapy: see "psychotherapy:behavioral therapies.”

Virtual School: see “learning:schools."

VIRUSES, Viral: see “biological disorders.”

Viscera, Visceral: see "human anatomy."

Visceral Brain: also referred to as the “limbic system.”

Visceral Pain: see “brain functions:somatic sensation:somatic information.”

Visible Performance: also referred to as "overt performance."

VISION: see "brain functions."

Vision for Action Pathway: also referred to as the "how pathway."

Vision for Perception Pathway: also referred to as the "what pathway."

Visual Acuity: see "brain functions:vision."

Visual Agnosia: see "neurological disorders:agnosia."

Visual Association Cortex: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:association cortex."

Visual Asymbolia: also referred to as "aphasic alexia."

Visual Attention Hierarchy: see "learning:attention."

Visual Cortex: also referred to as "primary visual cortex.”

Vision Disorders: see "neurological disorders."

Visual Hemiinattention: also referred to as "hemispatial neglect.”

Visual Illusions: also referred to as "optical illusions."

Visual Imagery: see "brain functions:vision."

VISUAL INFORMATION: see "brain functions:vision."

Visual Neglect: also referred to as “hemispatial neglect.”

VISUAL PATHWAYS: see "brain functions:vision."

Visual Processes: see “brain functions:vision.”

VISUAL STRUCTURES: see "brain functions:vision."

Visual System: also referred to as "vision."

Vitamins: see “biochemistry.”

Vocabulary: see "communication:language:language learning.”

Vocal Cords: see “human anatomy.”

Vocalics: see "communication:nonverbal communication."

Voice box: also referred to as “larynx.” 

Volt: see “neuroscience research.”

Voltage: see "neurocommunication:synaptic transmission."

Voltage-Gated Channel: see “human anatomy:cells:cellular transport.”

Volume: see "brain functions:vision:visual information."

Von Economo Neurons: see “nervous system:neurons:neuron types.”

Voucher: see “learning:schools."

V-Tach: also referred to as "ventricular tachycardia."


WPW: see "wolff-parkinson-white syndrome."

Wakaru: see "learning."

Wakeru: see “learning."

Walking Corpse Syndrome: also referred to as “cotard syndrome.”

Waterfall Illusion: see "brain functions:perception:perceptual illusions.”

WAYS TO DIVIDE THE BRAIN: see “neuroanatomy."

WAYS TO VIEW THE BRAIN: see “neuroanatomy."

Web-Based Training: see "learning:instructional design:training implementation."

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence."

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: see "brain functions:cognition:intelligence.”

Wedging: see "communication."

We Language: see "communication:language."

Wellbutrin: see "medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Wernicke’s Aphasia: see "neurological disorders:aphasia."

Wernicke’s Area: see "neuroanatomy:cerebral cortex:temporal lobes."

What Circuit: also referred to as the "what pathway."

What Pathway: see "brain functions:vision:visual pathways.”

What System: also referred to as the "what pathway."

Where Circuit: also referred to as the "old pathway."

Where Pathway: also referred to as the "old pathway."

Where System: also referred to as the "old pathway."

White Blood Cells: see “biological functions:circulation.”

White Matter: see "neuroanatomy."

Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing: see “genetics:genetic research:sequencing”

Wild Type: also referred to as “wild type allele.”

Wild Type Allele: see "genetics:genes."

Windpipe: also referred to as “trachea.”

Wisdom: see "intelligence."

Wisdom of the Phylum: also referred to as "phyletic wisdom."

Withdrawal: see "neurochemistry:narcotics."

Wobblers: see "neurological disorders."

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW): see "biological disorders:cardiovascular disease."

Womb: also referred to as "uterus."

Word: see "communication:language:language structure."

Word Blindness: also referred to as "alexia."

Working Memory: see “brain functions:memory.”

Workplace Abuse: see "communication."

Workplace Cliques: see "communication."

Workplace Communication: see "communication."

Workplace Relationship: see "social psychology:relationships." 

World-Mindedness: see "social psychology:culture."X Chromosome: see “genetics:chromosomes.”


X-Linked Lethal Trait: see "genetics:complex inheritance."

X-Linked Recessive Trait: see "genetics:complex inheritance.”

X-Rays: see “environment:environmental risks.”

X-Ray Therapy: see “biological disorders:cancer.”

X-System: also referred to as "low road.”

X0 Syndrome: also referred to as “Turner Syndrome.”

XX Male Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”

XXX Syndrome: also referred to as “Triplo-X.”

XXY Syndrome: also referred to as “Klinefelters syndrome.”

XYY Syndrome: also referred to as “Jacobs Syndrome.”

XXYY Syndrome: see “biological disorders:chromosome disorders.”Y Chromosome: see “genetics:chromosomes.”


Yeast: also referred to as “S. cerevisiae.”

Year-Round School: see “learning:schools."

Yolk Sac: see "developmental biology:embryology."

You Language: see "communication:language."

Zeitgeist: see "social psychology:culture."

Zoloft: see "medicine:medications:antidepressants.”

Zombie Agents: also referred to as “low road."

Zombie Systems: also referred to as “low road.”

Zone of Proximal Development: see “developmental psychology:childhood development.”

Zygote: see "developmental biology:embryology.”