Instructional Strategies: a “grammar” and “syntax” of "instructional design." (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Strategies that help students learn and retain information. Important strategies are the ones that the learner uses to organize (new) information, such as note taking, using a thinking skill, creating a graphic organizer, and questioning. (Pollock, 70-71) Two noteworthy changes have occurred in the last 40 years that can positively affect the way teachers teach and learners learn. The first is the advent of the personal computer and the immediate availability of information and data. The second is the dramatic shift in psychological research from behaviorism to neuroscience. (Pollock2, 63-64)
Anchored Instruction: presents a narrative, or story with all the information needed to solve the problem embedded in the story itself. The learner first subdivides the main problem of the story into its sub-problems, then goes about trying to solve each of the sub-problems. (Marshall, 11/3/2011) A major paradigm for technology-based learning. Learning and teaching activities (are) designed around a “anchor" … a case-study or problem situation. Curriculum materials allow exploration by the learner. The initial focus of (anchored instruction) was on the development of interactive ‘videodisc’ tools that encouraged students and teachers to pose and solve complex, realistic problems. The video materials serve as "anchors" for all subsequent learning and instruction. (Instructional Design, Anchored Instruction) Editor’s note - a “constructivism” based learning theory. Developed by John Bransford.
Component Display Theory: classifies learning along two dimensions - knowledge (or content) and application (or performance by learners). (Instructional Design, Component Display Theory) Emphasizes the learning experience by sequencing it into a number of individual events or ‘components.’ (Marshall, 11/3/2011) Specifies components that help people learn including objectives, information, examples, help, practice, feedback, and ‘wraparound material’ (motivational statements and directions.) (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Editor's note - examples of this approach include the development of workbooks or multimedia or computer based training. Developed by David Merrill in 1983.
Apply Concept Strategy: requires learners to identify examples that belong to a group. (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Editor's note - includes a sequence of steps for instruction based on applying information to teach concepts.
Apply Principle Strategy: requires learners to identify examples that belong to a group. (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Editor's note - includes a sequence of steps for instruction based on applying information to teach principles.
Apply Procedure Strategy: requires learners to identify examples that belong to a group. (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Editor's note - includes a sequence of steps for instruction based on applying information to teach procedures.
Component Design Theory: a new version of "component display theory" (that) has a more macro focus than the original theory with the emphasis on course structures (instead of lessons) and instructional transactions rather than presentation forms. In addition, ‘advisor’ strategies have taken the place of ‘learner control’ strategies. Development has been closely related to work on expert systems and authoring tools for instructional design. (Instructional Design, Component Display Theory)
Remember Strategy: editor's note - includes a sequence of steps for instruction based on “recalling” facts, concepts, procedures, or principles.
Cooperative Instruction: an instructional strategy for grouping students from different groups and learning abilities to work collaboratively on projects and assignments. (Johnson, 143) Also referred to as ‘cooperative learning.’
Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI): developed by Robert Mager, a comprehensive set of methods for the design and delivery of training programs. Some of the critical aspects include goal/task analysis, performance objectives, criterion referenced testing, and the development of learning modules tied to specific objectives. Training programs developed in CRI format tend to be self-paced courses involving a variety of different media (e.g., workbooks, videotapes, small group discussions, computer-based instruction). Students learn at their own pace and take tests to determine if they have mastered a module. A course manager administers the program and helps students with problems. Based upon the ideas of ‘mastery learning’ and “performance-based instruction.” (Instructional Design, Learning Theories)
Direct Instruction: approach in which the teacher provides precise information about a specific topic, concept, or skill. (Johnson, 352) A model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning. (NIFDI, About DI) Editor's note - this is a “cognitivist-based” based learning theory.
Evidence-Based Practice: an approach for which there is research and/or evaluation studies of its effectiveness. (Johnson, 373)
Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction: an instructional (systems) design model put together by Robert Gagne. Identified the mental conditions for learning. These were based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. Gagne’ created a nine-step process called the ‘events of instruction,’ which correlate to and address the conditions of learning. (Center for Instructional Technology and Training, University of Florida) A behaviorist model that also draws from cognitivism. (Edutech Wiki, Nine Events of Instruction) A set of important instructional events--things that promote efficient and effective learning. (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Editor's note - examples include the development of courses and workshops.
Gagne Event 1 Gain Attention: (includes) stating the objectives of a lesson. Helps marshal attention and other resources to the specific task at hand. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 2 Activate Motivation: motivation is one of the factors that drives “performance.” (Includes) arousing uncertainty, describing someone the learners would identify with (‘model’) who has mastered the content, describing how the lesson relates to future needs and activities of the learner, raising (the learner’s) confidence, establishing a reward for mastery of the objective, and establishing (facilitator’s) credibility. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 3 Stimulate Recall: (includes) citing previous learning, and using “analogy” (association). (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 4 Present Information: choose information and examples to present, and how to present them, when teaching specific kinds of content and performances. You might use "component display theory" in conjunction with the guidelines. (Marshall, 11/17/2011) (Includes) overview, background, term definition, example, demonstration, rhetorical questioning, discussion, analogies, and/or summary. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 5 Provide Learning Guidance: going from recall to applying. Helps learner internalize what’s being taught. Helping them organize it inside their head. Getting them to a point where they can begin practicing what is being taught. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 6 Provide Practice: informal activities such as learning probes, and formal activities such as tests at the end of units of instruction. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 7 Provide Feedback: (includes) ‘simulation,’ drill, individual practice, ‘guided practice,’ group feedback, peer feedback, ‘delayed feedback,’ and role play. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 8 Assess Performance: assess whether learners have met the lesson objectives. (includes) student self test, ‘pre test,’ and ‘post test.’ Needs to align closely with the instructional objectives. (Marshall, 11/17/2011)
Gagne Event 9 Enhance Retention and Transfer: (includes) ‘peer tutoring,’ ‘extra credit assignments,’ ‘extra practice.’ (Marshall, 11/17/2011) Provide a “job aid” to the learners. (Marshall, 12/3/2011)
Herbartian Teaching Method: stresses learning by association and consists of five steps: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application. (Johnson, 37)
Indirect Instruction: a set of teaching approaches in which students have greater responsibility for structuring and managing their own learning. (Johnson, 352)
Inquiry Instruction: an instructional approach that begins with a problem or puzzle posed by either the teacher or students. (Johnson, 352)
Problem Based Learning: an inquiry learning approach in which an authentic, contemporary, or simulated problem is posed and students work in groups to develop a solution. (Johnson, 353) Learners analyze and make decisions about complex situations, embedded in real world contexts, using a variety of problem solving strategies. Instructors act as tutors or facilitators while learners hypothesize solutions, learn basic skills, research information, and test their hypotheses. (Marshall, 11/3/2011) Editor's note - a “constructivism” based learning theory. Used in most medical schools.
Jigsaw Classroom Technique: (teaching tactic) that stresses cooperative rather than competitive learning situations. For example, bringing together students in small, ethnically diverse groups to work on a mutual project. Each student becomes an expert on one aspect of the overall project and has to teach it to the other members of the group. (Hockenbury, 454)
Job Aid: a repository for information, processes, or perspectives that is external to the individual and supports work and activity by directing, guiding, and enlightening performance. (Rossett and Downes, 45) A variety of devices that expand experience, clarify it, and give it personal significance. (Bruner, 91)
Model-Centered Learning: an (instructional) approach that allows students to explore and evaluate models and to create their own models for explaining and predicting phenomena (such as force and motion in astronomy). (Johnson, 353)
Playing: exercise or action by way of recreation or amusement, now especially as a spontaneous activity of children. (Oxford) What nearly all developmental psychologists, neuroscientists and education experts recommend for children up to age seven as the best way to nurture kids’ development and ready them for academic success later in life. (SAM, November/December 2011)
Programmed Instruction: breaks information down into small, easily remembered chunks with frequent feedback and remediation. Particularly useful for learning simple facts, concepts, and even procedures. (Marshall, 11/3/11) Editor's note - a “behaviorism” based learning theory.
Socratic Method: a way of teaching that centers on the use of question by the teacher to lead students to a certain conclusion. (Johnson, 31)