Eo na toa, Eo na toa, E!   Hawaiian language meaning ‘Respond fellow warriors, respond with one’s heart to the challenges that lie ahead of us.’ Phrase chanted by the University of Hawaii team immediately prior to the start of an American football game.

Motivation: the internal state of an “organism” that drives it to behave in a certain way. (Cardwell, 156)

The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. (NCIt) The biological, “emotional,”  “cognitive,” or social forces that activate and direct behavior. According to most psychologists, activation, persistence, and intensity characterize motivation. (Hockenbury, 299)

Achievement Motivation: the marshaling of feelings like enthusiasm and confidence to enhance achievement. (Goleman2, 79) The desire to direct one’s behavior toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task. In the 1930’s, Henry Murray identified 20 fundamental human needs or motives, including achievement motivation. (Hockenbury, 326) For example, Hans bought a chess software program and practices every day because he is highly motivated to become the top player on his college chess team. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8) 

Activation: the initiation or production of behavior. (Hockenbury, 299) Example: Sarah is determined to play the role of Clara in the ballet, ‘The Nutcracker.’ She begins to work very hard in ballet classes with this goal in mind. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8)

Competence Motivation: the desire to direct one’s behavior toward demonstrating “competence” and exercising control in a situation. Provides much of the motivational ‘push’ to prove to yourself that you can successfully tackle new challenges. (Hockenbury, 324) For example, Mark signed up for piano lessons to prove to himself that he could successfully master the challenge of learning to play the piano. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8) Alex Todorov, of Princeton University, found that people judge competence by combining the two dimensions of strength and trustworthiness. The faces that exude competence combine a strong chin with a slight confident-appearing smile. In about 70% of the races for senator, congressman, and governor, the election winner was the candidate whose face had earned a higher rating of competence. (Kahneman, 91)

Drive: the psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals. (Coon, 389) A need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore “homeostasis.” (Hockenbury, 301) The motivational state of an animal arising directly from some specific need (e.g. a need for food, a need to escape). (Cardwell, 82)

Extrinsic Motivation: external influences on behavior, such as “rewards,” social evaluations, rules, and responsibilities. (Hockenbury, 325) For example, Jacob is taking advanced placement biology in high school because his guidance counselor told him he had to if he intended to apply to a pre-med program at a competitive university. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8)

Intrinsic Motivation: the desire to engage in tasks that the person finds inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging. (Hockenbury, 325) For example, Olivia is taking advanced placement biology in high school because she loves science and is fascinated by biology. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8)

Persistence: continued efforts or the determination to achieve a particular goal. (Hockenbury, 299) For example, although Hunter keeps falling when he tries to learn to ice skate, he keeps working at being a better skater so he can play ice hockey. (Bradshaw, Chapter 8) Intentionality. The wish and capacity to have an impact, and to act upon that with persistence. This is related to a sense of competence, of being effective. (Goleman2, 194)

Relatedness: the need to feel attached to others and experience a sense of belongingness, security, and “intimacy.” (Hockenbury, 325) The ability to engage with others based on the sense of being understood by and understanding others. (Goleman2, 194)

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): a projective test that involves creating stories about ambiguous scenes that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The participant‘s story is coded for different motivational themes, including achievement. (Hockenbury, 326) Promoted by David McClelland as a way of assessing job candidates. Telling a story based on a series of images was thought to uncover people's true motives. (Collin, 323) Editor's note - developed by Henry Murray and colleagues.