There has been a great deal of discussion in recent years about the devices that can be employed to aid in the teaching process.
— Jerome Bruner, The Process of Education (1960)

Schools: establishments in which children are given a formal education. (Oxford)

A child's school experience is known to produce actual changes in "brain function" and anatomy. Educators and parents are not just influencing the thought processes of our children but actually helping to construct their brains. (Levine, 307) Despite a rapidly changing society, American education has changed little during the past fifty years. Typical classrooms in schools across the country today look much the same as those of years gone by. (Sousa, 228) Also referred to as ‘academic institutions’ and educational institutions.’

Charter School: public schools established by teachers, parents, nonprofit organizations, and others under a contract with the state or local school district. They are exempt from many state and district regulations as they design and deliver programs for improving the academic performance of students. (Johnson 148)

Home School: teaching children at home rather than in formal schools. (Johnson, 63) (A ‘home school completion’) indicates that a person was instructed in an educational program outside of established schools, especially in the home. (MeSH)

Magnet School: public schools with a focused curriculum such as the arts or mathematics and science. These schools are designed to attract a diverse student population from across a school district or state. (Johnson, 148)

Normal School: the first type of American institution devoted exclusively to teacher training. Most did not require high school graduation for entrance until about 1900. (Johnson, 68) The Normal School at Oswego, New York became the center of “Pestalozzi education” in the United States. An investigation by the National Educational Association in 1965 reported favorably on the results, and soon after, normal schools across the nation adopted the Oswego plan, based on his method. (NewWorldEncyclopedia)

Primary School: a school providing “primary education.” (Oxford) A school for young children; usually the first 6 or 8 grades. (MeSH) Also referred to as ‘grade school.’

Common Elementary Schools: schools that originated in the mid-nineteenth century designed to provide a basic elementary education for all children. Until the late 1800‘s, the motive, “curriculum,” and administration of elementary education was primarily religious. (Johnson, 40) Also referred to as ‘elementary schools.’

Dame School: a low-level primary school in the colonial and other early periods, usually conducted by an untrained woman (referred to as a ‘dame’). (Johnson, 39)

Latin Grammar School: an early type of school that emphasized the study of Latin, literature, history, mathematics, music, and dialectics. Became pronounced during the Roman empire between 50 BC and 200 CE. (Johnson, 32) Also referred to as ‘grammar school.’

Monitorial School: an attempt to provide economical mass elementary education for large numbers of children. Typically, the teacher would teach hundreds of pupils, using the better students as helpers. First established in 1805 by New York City. (Johnson, 39)

Parochial School: an education institution operated and controlled by a religious denomination. (Johnson, 51)

Religion-Affiliated School: a private school over which a parent church group exercises some control, or to which a church provides subsidy. (Johnson, 50)

Secondary School: schools created to serve the needs of (American) society. (Johnson, 51) Secondary school that usually includes grades 9 through 12. (NCIt)

American Academy: private school established by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1751. Its philosophy, curriculum, and methodology was geared to prepare young people for employment. First truly American education a institution. (Johnson, 40)

English Classical School: opened in Boston in 1821. Consisted of a three-year course in English, mathematics, science, and history. Established because of a belief that the existing grammar schools were inadequate and because most people could not afford to send their children to private academies. (Johnson, 41) Also referred to as the ‘english high school’ and ‘high school.’

Middle School: first established in the USA in about 1910. Today’s middle school usually consists of grades 6, 7, and 8. (Johnson, 40) Also referred to as ‘junior high school.’

University: an institution of higher education, offering courses and research facilities in mainly non-vocational subjects, and having acknowledged powers and privileges, especially that of conferring degrees. (Oxford)

Colonial Colleges: Harvard, the first colonial college, was established in 1636 for preparing ministers. (Johnson, 39)

Medieval Universities: forerunners of modern universities, established in Europe. Included University of Bologna (1158), University of Paris (1180) and Oxford University (1214). (Johnson, 33) 

State Colleges: evolution of “state teacher colleges” as they expanded their programs beyond teacher education and became multipurpose institutions around 1950. (Johnson, 68)

State Teacher Colleges: evolution of “normal schools” as they expanded their programs to four years and began granting baccalaureate degrees about 1950. (Johnson, 68)

Unschooling: parents provide no instruction but allow their children to learn through whatever they naturally do. (Johnson, 63)

Virtual School: education program offered without the teacher and student being in the same room or location for instruction. Most programs are offered online via web-based technologies. (Johnson, 152)

Voucher: a check or credit granted by a school district or state to parents to pay part or all of the tuition of their children to attend a private school. (Johnson, 148)

Year-Round School: school that is open all year, with only a proportion of the students attending at any one time. (Johnson, 240)