Training Analysis: training phase where the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. (Instructional Design, ADDIE Model)

The resolution or breaking up of something complex into its various simple elements; the exact determination of the elements or components of something complex. A statement of the result of such an operation. In “philosophy,” the resolution, by application of logic etc., of complex structures, facts, propositions, and concepts into their elements. The tracing of things to their source and the resolution of knowledge into its original principles. (Oxford, definition of 'analysis.') The study of what we do in order to figure out what to do. (Rossett and Tilaro, 31) The purpose of analysis is to cast a wide net for needs and solutions. To reach out to an array of sources in order to define the effort and to create support for it. (Rossett and Tilaro, 36)

Performance Analysis: a procedure used to identify the causes of problems, decide which problems are worth solving, describe (alternative) solutions, and decide which solutions will be both practical and economically feasible. (Mager, 4) Main purpose is to identify gaps and determine causes for those gaps. (Marshall, 9/23/2011) Used to determine why people aren’t doing something they are supposed to be doing or why they are doing something they shouldn’t be doing. (Mager2, 9) A reconnaissance effort used to determine what is needed. (Rossett and Tilaro, 31) Requires that relevant performances are identified. (Mager2, 11) Goal is to try and understand the situation and determine what the best solution will be. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) The analysis consists of evaluating the size or importance of a “performance discrepancy.” (Next) determining whether the discrepancy exists because of a lack of skill, or motivation to perform a known skill, or because of obstacles that prevent the desired performance from occurring. (Mager2, 9) Used when an organization wishes to respond to an ongoing problem, is attempting to introduce a change or something new, or where its focus is broad - on a particular group of people, position, or job. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Editor's note - developed by Robert Mager in 1983.

Analysis of Teaching: procedures used to enable teachers to critique their own performance in the classroom. (Johnson 70)

Audience: the people whose performance you’re trying to improve. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Cause Analysis: identifies the causes of lack of performance and barriers to performing at the optimal level. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Concludes the performance analysis with a set of justified recommendations. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Also referred to as ‘front end analysis’ and ‘driver analysis.’

Gap Analysis: the difference between optimals and actuals. (Marshall, 9/22/202011)

People Development: one of three main reasons for doing a performance analysis. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) In an organization, this is a situation where the focus is on a particular group of people, position, or job. (Rossett First, How to Handle Rollouts, Performance, People)

Performance: thing you can tell if someone is doing or not doing. (Mager2, 66)

Actuals: actual or current performance. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Covert Performance: (performances) that are not directly observable. (Marshall, 10/13/2011) (In setting “instructional objectives”) if performance is covert, an “indicator behavior” is needed. (Mager3, 77)

Optimals: desired performance. In the ideal world, what we would want someone to know or do. What strong performers (aka ‘water walkers’) do. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Also referred to as ‘performance optimals.’

Overt Performance: visible (observable) or audible performance. (Mager3, 51) Also referred to as ‘visible performance.’

Indicator Behavior: an overt performance that indicates a covert performance is taking place. (Marshall2, 10/13/2011) Tells whether a covert performance is happening to our satisfaction. (Mager3, 77) Tells us the state or condition of something we cannot see or measure directly (Mager2, 18) Also referred to as an ‘indicator performance.’

Performance Problem: one of three main reasons for doing a performance analysis. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) A problem in which what someone is expected to do is not the same as what that person is actually doing. (Mager, 2) They can exist in personal interactions, clashes with policy, and unacceptable work practices. Sometimes (performance) discrepancies are caused by too much performance. (Mager, 10) Also referred to as ‘performance discrepancy.’

Performance Barriers: reasons for a performance problem. Factors that get in the way of a performance solution. For example, lack of motivation. Things that are keeping us in the "actuals" world, and not allowing us to be in the “optimals” world. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Root causes (of gap between performance expectations and actual performance.) (In performance analysis) sought and then used to define solutions. (Rossett and Tilaro, 38) Also referred to as ‘barriers,‘  ‘constraints,’ and ‘performance drivers.'

Environment Barrier: a problem with the organization. People don’t have the ‘right’ tools, equipment, time, policies, physical spaces or processes (to do the ‘optimal’ performance.) For example, the online help system is complex, difficult to use, and not a good match for functional challenges. For example, airport x-ray machines are outdated. For example, using a job aid. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Incentive Barrier: a problem with the organization. People aren’t asked to do (the optimal performance). Doing it results in a hassle. Doing it is ignored. Not doing it is rewarded. For example, supervisors regularly give more jobs, and more difficult jobs, to the people who produce the most. For example, giving out year-end bonuses. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Motivation Barrier: a problem with people. They don’t believe they can do it ('confidence'), they don’t know why to do it (‘value’), or they don’t care. For example, some don’t  see the value of the new software; the old works just fine. For example, ‘testimonials.’ (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Skill Barrier: a problem with people. They don’t know how to do (the optimal performance), they’ve forgotten how to do it, there’s too much to know, or the (knowledge required) changes all the time. For example, teachers leave their computers in the closet because they don’t know how to use them. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Rollout: one of three main reasons for doing a performance analysis. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) An opportunity that arises because the organization is attempting to introduce a change or something new. It might be a new product, like a drug or software or a computer system. Or it might be a new philosophy or perspective on the work, like a commitment to continuous process improvement or the self-regulation required of mobile employees. (Rossett First, How to Handle Rollouts, Performance, People)

Solution System Recommendations: based on what is discovered (by a performance analysis.) (Rossett First, How to Handle Rollouts, Performance, People) Solutions may address performance problems caused by environment, incentives, motivation, or skills and knowledge. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Sponsor: representative of organization requesting a performance analysis. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Stakeholders: people interested in the performance problem/performance/outcome. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

Training Needs Assessment: the study done in order to design and develop appropriate instructional and informational programs and materials. Might involve in-depth subject-matter study, audience analysis, determination of prerequisite skills and attitudes, and establishment of consensus approaches and standards. (Rossett and Tilaro, 31) Helps us further define content and performance. Performance analysis guarantees doing the right things. About doing things right. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Procedures to follow to help you define success so you can select the strategy for achieving it. (Mager3, 7) Also referred to as ‘needs assessment.’

Audience Analysis: a technique (that) consists of a careful examination of the characteristics (abilities, education, interest, biases, experience) of those for whom instruction is intended. Useful mainly as a procedure for adjusting existing instructional objectives. (Mager2, 11) Description of the people you are working with; demographics, current knowledge and abilities. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Also referred to as ‘target population analysis.’

Content Analysis: answers the question - What do strong performers know? Involves detailed literature review, observation of model performers, and communication with experts. Typically happens during a training needs assessment. (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Also referred to as ‘subject matter analysis.’

Critical Incident Analysis: attempts to answer the question, “What isn’t happening according to expectation?” Collects and analyzes incidents of deviations from the expected (accidents, for example). (Mager2, 9) Also referred to as ‘significant incident analysis.’

Goal Analysis: the process of defining “optimals” for an abstract, fuzzy goal. (Procedure) to help decide if instruction will help (a target audience) to achieve a desired state. And if it will, what kind of instruction to organize. Used to define the main performances that constitute the meaning of a goal. (Used to) decide which of these performances need to be taught and which need to be managed. (Mager2, 10-11) A critical part of a “training needs assessment,” where the details of excellence associated with abstract concepts are defined and agreed to. (Marshall, 9/22/2011-Analysis Techniques)

Human Factors Analysis: used to find out how best to design equipment so that it will fit the human beings expected to use it. The purpose is to find out how to make the equipment “user friendly,” easy to use, and 'idiot-proof.' (Mager, 8)

Job Analysis: used to identify the tasks that should define a job, to name and describe the tasks that will best serve the organization in producing desired accomplishments (outcomes). (Mager2, 8)

Organizational Analysis: used to determine what an organization should look like to accomplish its mission. (Mager2, 8)

Task Analysis: a technique (that) reveals the components of competent performance. A step-by-step look at how competent people perform a task. (Mager2, 10) (Seeks answer to the question) what is it that strong performers do? (Marshall, 9/22/2011) Describes the steps followed and decisions made during completion of the task; and it indicates how to tell when the task has been completed. (Mager3, 39) Process of systematically identifying and sequencing the small learnings that must be accomplished in order for students to demonstrate mastery of a particular task or benchmark. (Johnson, 349) Task analysis methods include ‘observation’ and ‘interviews.’ (Marshall, 10/6/2011)