Language Learning: the brain areas that are active when learning language are different from the the ones that are active when using language once it has been learned. Moreover, different areas are activated depending on the specific language activity, like the comprehension of words, categorizing a word, translating between languages, or making decisions about grammar. (Kenneally, 179)

Foreign languages often seem impossibly complex to non-speakers. Their sounds alone may seem odd and difficult to make. Marked differences can make learning one of them challenging. (However), the similarities among human languages, although not immediately apparent, are actually far more fundamental than their differences. (Kolb, 325) Today, learning a foreign language is likely to mean learning a great deal about the foreign civilization and culture at the same time. A cultural frame of reference becomes increasingly important the greater the ‘distance’ between languages. (Cambridge Language, 372)

Bilingualism: the ability to speak two languages. (Coon, 337) Said of an individual or community that regularly uses two languages. (Crystal, 422)

Bilingual Education: an educational strategy that uses English and the native language of students in classroom instruction. (Johnson, 178) School program that teaches English language learners all subjects in their native language while they are learning English. Advocates see bilingual education as a way to help students gain knowledge while becoming literate in two languages. (Ravitch, 32)

English as a Second Language (ESL): classes or support programs for students whose native language is not English. ESL classes generally have a stronger focus on English than do traditional bilingual programs, which emphasize students’ native language. (Ravitch, 87) A program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language. (OCR) An educational strategy for teaching English to speakers of other languages without the use of the native language for instruction. (Johnson, 179)

Immersion: a program approach in which “English as a Second Language” students are taught primarily in English, with use of their native language only on a case-by-case basis. (Johnson, 357) Said of a bilingual program in which monolingual children attend a school where another language is the medium of instruction. (Crystal, 369) A strategy of teaching students to speak, read, and write in a second language by surrounding them with the language through interaction and instructions. (Ravitch, 118)

Grammar: the set of rules governing the use of a language, including knowledge of the parts of speech and correct “syntax.” Linguists often distinguish between this kind of rules-based grammar and grammar as it occurs in the usage shared by a community of speakers. (Ravitch, 106-107) An account of the language's possible sentence structures, organized according to certain general principles. (Crystal, 88)

Conjugation: the scheme of all the inflectional forms belonging to a verb. Inflect (a verb) in its various forms of voice, mood, tense, number, and person. (Oxford) The set of verbs that occur in the same forms in an inflecting language. (Crystal, 423)

Punctuation: the practice, method, or skill of inserting points or marks in writing or printing, in order to aid the sense; division of text into “sentences,” “clauses,” etc, by means of such marks. (Oxford)

Syntax: the order of words in which they convey meaning collectively by their connection and relation. (Oxford) Set of rules for combining. (Hockenbury, 272) The order and relationships of words in a sentence. (Writers Inc, 134) Word order that enables compact representation of complex meaning for communicative intent; loosely synonymous with grammar. In the sentence “The man who hit John went to the car,” we recognize instantly that “the man” went to the car, not John. Without syntax we could not arrive at this conclusion. (RamachandranTTb, 304) Adjective: ‘syntactic.’ Also referred to as ‘sentence structure.”

Linguistics: the science of language. (Crystal, 408) The branch of knowledge that deals with language. (Oxford) Adjective - 'linguistic.'

Regulative Rules: guidelines that govern how we use language when we verbally communicate—that is, spelling and grammar as well as conversational usage. For example, we know how to respond correctly to a greeting, and we know that cursing in public is inappropriate. (McCornack, 183)

Pragmatics: the study of the factors influencing a person’s choice of language. (Crystal, 120) The ability to understand the rules of effective communication such as turn-taking, initiating and ending conversations, etc. (Cardwell, 138)

Semantics: the study of linguistic meaning. (Crystal, 100) Comprehension of meaning. (Ramachandran, 133) The study of meanings in language. (Coon, 337)

Morphology: the form (including change, formation, and inflection) of words in a language; the branch of linguistics that deals with this. (Oxford) The study of word structure, especially in terms of “morphemes.” (Crystal, 90)

Constitutive Rules: guidelines that define word meaning according to a particular language’s vocabulary. For instance, ‘pencil’ is 'bleistift' in German and 'matita' in Italian. (McCornack, 183)

Vocabulary: the sum or aggregate of words composing a language. (Oxford)

Comprehension Vocabulary: the words that are understood by an infant or child. (Hockenbury, 365)

Production Vocabulary: the words that an infant or child understands and can speak. (Hockenbury, 365)

Phonology: the study of the sound systems of language. (Crystal, 162) The ability to understand and produce speech sounds. (Cardwell, 138)

Intonation: manner of utterance of the tones of the voice in speaking; modulation of the voice; accent. (Oxford) The contrastive use of “pitch” in speech. (Crystal, 171)

Phonics: any of a number of approaches to teaching students the alphabetic code of a language - that is, how the sounds of the language are encoded into writing and then decoded during reading. Instruction in phonics teaches beginning readers the relationships between letters and sounds and shows them how to decode words by sounding them out. (Ravitch, 167)

Pronunciation: act of saying words correctly according to the accepted standards of a language. (Griffin, 447)