Speaking: the action of speech, talk; conversation, discourse. The delivery of speeches. Converse, talk with others. (Oxford) The most universal and natural medium for the transmission and reception of language. No community has ever been found to lack spoken language. (Crystal, 123) Spoken language communication is the foundation upon which social/emotional, behavioral, academic and occupational outcomes depend. (Tallal, 30Oct2012)

One may speak about an object, a process, a concept, a place or purpose, and an event. It can be used to articulate a problem or position, to explore an issue, to entertain, or to honor someone. (Griffin, 448) No matter what one does for a living, the voice, and the way (it is used), is as essential to (an individual) as to an opera singer. (Berkley, 1) The human vocal apparatus is vastly more sophisticated than that of any other ape, but without the correspondingly sophisticated language areas in the human brain, such exquisite articulatory equipment alone would be useless.(RamachandranTTB, 120)

Prosody: extra-linguistic information conveyed through verbal communication by means of “intonation” and “inflection” rather than by the literal meaning of words. (Goldberg, 30) The linguistic use of “pitch,”  “loudness,”  “tempo,” and “rhythm.” (Crystal, 171) Also referred to as 'emotional tone.’

Small Talk: light, usually factual, conversation shared by people that enables them to become acquainted with one another in a safe and controlled fashion, such as talk about the weather or a recent sports event. (McCornack, 336)

Speaking Strategies: mentally preparing for a communication situation by thinking through how you will perform in an encounter that causes anxiety. For example, before calling to complain about her telephone bill, Marjorie mentally rehearses how she will explain her problem and what objections she might face. (McCornack, 271-272) If the person you are talking to senses any kind of threat or annoyance in the tone of your voice, if they perceive any incongruence between your body language, tone of voice, or spoken words, you just won’t get through. No matter what words you use, you won’t be believed - and you won’t be trusted. (Berkley, 3) Also referred to as ‘communication plans.’

Contingencies: mentally anticipating what the other person might say and how you would respond during an encounter. For instance, to be prepared for whatever might come up, Jacob tried out various scenarios in his mind about what questions he might be asked during a job interview. (McCornack, 272) 

Self-Presentation: in interpersonal encounters, presenting yourself in certain ways so that others perceive you as being a particular type of person. (McCornack, 21) 

Social Support: using support behaviors that are typically perceived as helpful by people under stress. Behaviors perceived as helpful include: being a good listener and showing concern and interest; asking questions that encourage (the individual) to express his or her feelings and emotions; and expressing understanding about why the person is upset. Behaviors perceived as being unhelpful include: giving advice the individual has not requested; telling the person ‘I know exactly how you feel,' and pretending to be cheerful. (Hockenbury, 495)

Speaking Tactics: repeatable behaviors (that influence communication). (McCornack, 29) If you don’t make a favorable (impression) within the first twelve seconds, you must make seven subsequent positive impressions to undo the damage done the first time around. (Berkley, i)

Active Experiencing: participants use all physical, mental, and emotional channels to communicate the meaning of material to another person, either actually present or imagined. (Noice, 15)

Compromise: a strategy for managing conflict in which both parties give up something they want in order that both can receive something they want. (Floyd, G2) An agreeable resolution to a conflict achieved when both people sacrifice some of their goals. For example, though Matt wants to see the sci-fi thriller and Jane wants to see the new animated film, they agree to go to an adventure comedy. (McCornack, 306)

Cooperative Principle: the idea that meaningful verbal messages are as informative, honest, relevant, and clear as the situation requires. For example, listening closely to your friend’s problem with a coworker and then responding with support would demonstrate the cooperative principle; interrupting your friend to brag about your new laptop would not. (McCornack, 199) The ability to balance one’s own needs with those of others in group activity. (Goleman2, 194)

Deception: the knowing and intentional transmission of information in order to create a false belief in the hearer. (Floyd, G2) Deliberately using uninformative, untruthful, irrelevant, or vague language for the purpose of misleading others. (McCornack, 206)

Domination: one person persuading another to abandon his or her goals to resolve a conflict. For example, Jane wants to see the new animated film, but Matt refuses by saying that it is his choice or no movie at all. (McCornack, 305)

Honesty: truthful communication, without exaggeration or omission of relevant information. Failing to tell someone something can be as dishonest as an outright lie. (McCornack, 200)

I-It: impersonal communication in which people are treated as objects or as instrumental to our purposes. (Wood, 331) A type of perception and communication that occurs when you treat others as though they are objects that are there for your use and exploitation—for example, when you dismiss someone by saying, “I don’t have time for your stupid questions. Figure it out yourself.” (McCornack, 14)

Mental Bracketing: noting an important issue that comes up in the course of discussing other matters and agreeing to discuss it at a later time. This technique allows people to stay effectively focused on the specific issue at hand. (Wood, 330) Intentionally putting aside thoughts that aren’t relevant to the interaction at hand if your attention wanders when listening—for example, by consciously dismissing your worries about an upcoming exam in order to focus on a customer’s request at work. (McCornack, 154)

Paraphrasing: a method of clarifying another's meaning by reflecting our interpretations of his or her communication back to him or her. (Wood, 333) An active listening response that summarizes or restates other’s comments after they are finished. (McCornack, 158)

Persuasion: social forces that attempt to exert an influence on ones “attitudes.” Through a process of persuasion, attitudes can be changed. This process includes four basic elements: source, receiver, message, and channel. Factors influencing persuasion (success) include credibility, expertise, trustworthiness and likability. (Bamford, 11/30/10)

Foot-in-the-Door Technique: involves persuading a person to agree to a small request, that in turn, increases the likelihood that the individual will agree to a larger request. For example, households that agreed to put a small sticker in their window were more likely to agree later to putting a large ugly sign in their front yard. Once a person has portrayed themselves as a person who donates, or buys, or whatever the behavior is, the more likely the person is to agree to a larger request of the same nature to remain consistent in behavior. (Bamford, 11/30/10)

Lowball Technique: involves persuading a person to agree to commit to a behavior before its hidden costs are revealed. Research suggests that making a commitment to behave increases the likelihood of following through on the behavior, even if the conditions have changed. (Bamford, 11/30/10)

Bait and Switch: variation of the lowball technique wherein an individual sees an ad for a low-priced item, and drives across town to buy it only to find out that the item is sold out. Then, the person is likely to buy something anyway (the more expensive model) because of the psychological and behavioral commitment of deciding to buy and driving across town. (Bamford, 11/30/10)