ARCS Model: according to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS). (LearningTheories, 59)
Describes how to break the idea of motivation into four useful concepts. Each of these (is) supported by research, and each encompasses many practical strategies. (Keller, 1) Helps designers and instructors organize their knowledge about learner motivation and motivational strategies. (Keller, 6) Editor's note - developed by John Keller in 1988. 'ARCS' is an acronym for attention getting strategies, relevance producing strategies, confidence building strategies, and satisfaction generating strategies.
Attention Getting Strategies: (used for) capturing the interest of learners, stimulating the curiosity to learn. (Keller, 2) Editor's note - includes "inquiry arousal," "perceptual arousal," and "variability."
Confidence Building Strategies: (used for) helping learners believe/feel that they will succeed and control their success. Providing learners personal control and meaningful success experiences. (Keller, 2-4) Providing a sense of control and mastery of one’s body, behavior, and world; the child’s sense that he is more likely than not to succeed at what he undertakes, and that adults will be helpful. (Goleman2, 174)
Learning Requirements: letting the learners know what is expected of them. Providing an expectancy of success. Removing “fear” and “anxiety.” (Tactics include) explaining the requirements of success and the (criteria for evaluation), (giving) positive, considerate responses to student questions and concerns. (Keller, 5) Providing learning objectives. (Marshall, 12/3/2011)
Personal Control: instructor focuses on the areas of leading the experience. The learner should be allowed as much personal control over the actual learning experience as possible. (Keller, 5)
Success Opportunities: (helping) learners succeed at challenging tasks that are meaningful. Increase (learners) belief in competence. (Tactics include) providing many, varied, and challenging experiences which increase learning success, and providing feedback. (Keller, 4-5) Early opportunities for success are important. (Marshall, 12/3/2011)
Relevance Producing Strategies: (used for) meeting the personal needs/goals of a learner to effect a positive attitude. If we have a good feeling about the personal meaningfulness of the material, or if we consciously recognize its importance, then we will be motivated to learn it. Respond to people’s perceived needs. A successful instructor is able to build bridges between the subject matter and the learner’s needs, wants, and desires. (Keller, 2-3)
Familiarity Relevance: make the materials and concepts familiar. People enjoy more about things they already believe in or are interested in. Tactics include concrete examples and analogies related to the learner’s work, learning and using students’ names, asking for experiences and ideas from students, (and using) text which includes the use of personal pronouns and people’s names. (Keller, 4)
Goal Orientation: people will be motivated to learn if the new knowledge or skill will help them achieve a goal in the present or future. Tactics include providing statements or examples of the utility of the instruction, presenting goals, or having the learners define goals. (Keller, 4)
Motive Matching: make instruction responsive to learner motives and values. Tactics include personal achievement opportunities, cooperative activities, leadership responsibilities, and positive role models. Cooperative work groups combined with individual competitive activities, such as games, will help make the instruction more appealing, independent of the content. (Keller, 4)
Satisfaction Generating Strategies: create satisfaction so there will be continued motivation to learn. Reinforce accomplishment with rewards. (Keller, 2)
Natural Consequences: provide for the use of newly acquired skills or knowledge. (Tactics include) case studies, simulations, and experiential learning activities to show how (learners) can now solve ‘real-world’ problems. (Keller, 5) Doing it ‘for real.’ (Marshall, 12/3/2011)
Positive Consequences: reinforcement of the learners’ successes. (Tactics include) verbal praise, real or symbolic rewards and incentives, letting students present the results of their efforts. (Keller, 6)