Learning” is how we acquire information. “Memory” is how we store that information. “Education” is about enhancing learning, and “Neuroscience” is about trying to understand how learning and memory occur.
— Eric Kandel, Learning and the Brain Symposium, April 2011

Learning: when we say students have ‘learned’ something, we might say that they can identify or “predict” the relevant “associations” among variables in the learning situation, express accurately the appropriate (key) concepts ... and store, retrieve, and apply that predication in context. (Jensen2, 34) Learning is a process of building neural networks. (Wolfe, 171) To alter behaviors to fit the demands of… local environments. (Merzenich, 11)

... different forms of learning result from different types or patterns of sensory signals. (Kandel, 257) The capacity to learn is widespread; it has evolved in many invertebrate animals and in all vertebrates. (The Brain-Eric Kandel, 29) With Aplysia, Eric Kandel revealed that we learn not by altering neurons but by strengthening “synapses” or by building new synapses. (SAM, Oct/Nov 2007, 33) Marian Diamond, a neuroanatomist at UC Berkeley, who studied Einstein’s Brain, did work that suggested the more we learn, the more neuronal connections are formed. When we cease learning and our mind stagnates, these connections shrivel and dwindle away. (Einstein, 9) Most neuroscientists today believe that alterations in synaptic connectivity underlie learning. (LeDoux, 134) What happens with learning is that the strength of synaptic connections changes. If you learn something in the short term, if you get it in a day or so, it’s a functional change, there is no change in the anatomy. But if you learn something for the long term by “repetition,” there is a change in anatomy. There is a change in the "expression" of "genes" that leads to a growth of new synaptic connections. (Rose, Episode 1 Eric Kandel) Verb - ‘learn.’

A Priori: of knowledge or concepts; not derived from sensory experience; innately. (Oxford)

Knowledge: the awareness and understanding of information. (Brooker, 15) The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country. (MeSH)

Neural Basis of Learning: the nature of the neural changes that constitute learning and memory. (LeDoux, 134) Changes like those found by Sir John Eccles (e.g. effect of repetitive stimulation on nerve cells) were interpreted as a step toward understanding the neural basis of learning. (LeDoux, 137)

Relearning: learning again something that was previously learned. Used to measure memory of prior learning. (Coon, 307)

Unlearning: the process of breaking connections between neurons thus dismantling existing memories. Essential when humans are moving from (one) developmental life stage to the next (i.e. child going off to college, falling in love, becoming a parent). Evidence suggests that unlearning existing memories is necessary to make room for new memories in our networks. (Doidge, 117)

Wakaru: understand; know; recognize. (Nakao) Editor's note - Japanese language verb.

Wakeru: divide, share, categorize. (Nakao) Editor's note - Japanese language verb. Means to break down something into smaller parts.