If instruction is to accomplish desired outcomes, it is imperative that those designing the instruction, as well as the ones doing the instruction, have a clear picture of those desired outcomes.
— Robert Mager, Preparing Instructional Objectives

Instructional Design (ISD): a systematic approach which provides ideas about planning, how people learn, environments, media, products, and systems. Guides efforts in figuring out what to do. (Marshall, 9/22/2011)

The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction. (Instructional Design) A system for creating training programs that achieve intended, measurable results. (Prometheus, Products-ADDIE model) Uses "learning theories," psychology, research, and technologies to solve instructional and performance problems. Uses “analysis,” to define a “performance problem” or skill deficiency; design and develop instruction or other interventions; and evaluate to determine whether the proposed solution is appropriate. (EDTEC in Action) In 1970, the Department of Audiovisual Instruction changed its name to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology to reflect changes in terminology. ‘Educational technology’ and ‘instructional technology’ replaced the term ‘audiovisual instruction.’ (IDT History, 1960-1979) Also referred to as ‘instructional systems design’ and ‘educational technology.’

ADDIE Model:a step-by-step instructional design process used to manage custom training projects. (Prometheus, Products-ADDIE Model) The generic term for the five-phase instructional design model consisting of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. There are probably over 100 different variations of the generic ADDIE model. (LearningTheories, 53) The generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. Represents a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. (Instructional Design-Instructional Design Models)

Hard Education Technologies: the things, stuff, tangible systems and products. For example, a computer, (a tablet), a satellite, (Microsoft) Internet Explorer. Hard technologies change. Soft technologies evolve, but historically accommodate changes in the hard technologies. (Marshall, 9/1/11)

Instructional Technology: an older term mostly referring to audiovisual work. (Marshall, 9/22/202011)

Soft Education Technologies: ideas, thoughts, planning systems, intellectual tools. For example, a theory about how to motivate people (or) a process by which successful instruction is created. (Marshall, 9/1/11)

Technology: the branch of knowledge that deals with the mechanical arts or applied sciences; a discourse or treatise on one of these subjects, originally on an art or arts. (Oxford) Systematic treatment of an art, craft or technique. (Marshall, 9/1/11) In San Francisco and the Santa Clara Valley during the late 1960’s … the technology revolution began with the growth of military contractors and soon included electronics firms, microchip makers, video game designers, and computer companies. There was a ‘hacker’ subculture - filled with ‘wireheads,’ ‘phreakers,’  ‘cyberpunks,’ hobbyists, and just plain ‘geeks.’ (Jobs, 56) The use of science and technology in an effort to enhance human beings is taking us beyond the outer edges of the moral, ethical, and religious maps bequeathed to us by previous generations. We are now in ‘terra incognito,’ where the ancient maps sometimes note, “There Be Monsters.” (Gore, 204-205) Editor’s note - originally from the Greek word ‘tekhnologia.’